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      Effects of ‘Non-Calcaemic’ Vitamin D Analogues on 24-Hydroxylase Expression in MG-63 Osteoblast-Like Cells

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          Background: New ‘non-calcaemic’ analogues of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>3</sub> (1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub>) are entering the clinical arena and some of them have been shown to have differential effects in bone. This may have a bearing on the evolution of bone lesions in uraemic patients receiving vitamin D therapies. A potential mechanism for differential effects of analogues lies in their target cell inactivation. Methods: Using a human osteoblastic cell line, MG-63, three analogues, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), 19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>2</sub> (paricalcitol) and 1α,25-dihydroxydihydrotachysterol<sub>2</sub> (1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>DHT<sub>2</sub>), were compared with 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub> for (1) their affinity for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by competitive displacement of tritiated 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub> from calf thymus VDR; (2) effects on 24-hydroxylase mRNA expression using comparative RT-PCR, and (3) rates of metabolism, using high performance liquid chromatography, over a 24-hour time course. Results: Relative VDR-binding affinities (IC<sub>50</sub>) were 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub> (100%), OCT (25%), paricalcitol (14%) and 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>DHT<sub>2</sub> (0.3%). A ≧3-fold increase in 24-hydroxylase mRNA expression was observed for all compounds at 2 h peaking at 7- to 8-fold above control levels by 12 h, with no significant difference between the analogues and 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub>. Differences in their rates of metabolism were observed [calculated t½ values = OCT (1.2 h) > paricalcitol (2.3 h) > 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D<sub>3</sub> (2.6 h) > 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>DHT<sub>2</sub> (3.4 h)], with OCT having a significantly shorter half-life. Conclusion: In MG-63 cells these analogues up-regulate 24-hydroxylase mRNA expression with similar potency, in each case accelerating ligand inactivation, despite significant differences in VDR affinity. VDR affinity did not correspond to either 24-hydroxylase mRNA expression or the rates of ligand disappearance, suggesting cellular metabolism is one of several factors that determine the analogue specificity of these agents in bone.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase, a multicatalytic enzyme.

          Human 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase has been expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells using the previously cloned cDNA in baculovirus (AcNPV-P450cc24). The activity of recombinant h-P450cc24 required adrenodoxin, adrenodoxin reductase, and NADPH. Incubation of this reconstituted system with 25-OH-[26,27-(3)H]D3 substrate produced several metabolites that were resolved on a normal-phase cyano HPLC system. These products exactly comigrated with authentic standards for 24-oxo-25-OH-D3, 23(S),25-(OH)2D3, 24(R),25-(OH)2D3, and 24-oxo-23(S),25-(OH)2D3. The soluble proteins from Sf21 cells infected with wild-type baculovirus produced neither 24,25-(OH)2D3 nor any of the other 25-OH-D3 metabolites. The products were isolated and subjected to a normal-phase amino HPLC for further separation, purification, and characterization. Comigration on two HPLC systems, periodate cleavage reactions, and NaBH4 reduction established clearly the identity of these metabolites. Incubation of recombinant h-P450cc24 with 25-OH-[3 alpha-3H]D3 led to the isolation of an additional product that comigrated with 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23-OH-D3. Treatment of putative 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23-OH-[3 alpha-3H]D3 with acetic anhydride changed its migration on amino HPLC to a less polar position, indicating acetylation of a hydroxyl group(s). These data demonstrate conclusively that h-P450cc24 is a multicatalytic enzyme catalyzing most, if not all, of the reactions in the C-24/C-23 pathway of 25-OH-D3 metabolism. It is likely that this enzyme by itself converts 25-OH-D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 to one of its final excretion products.
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            Transcriptional synergism between vitamin D-responsive elements in the rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) promoter.

             D Kerry,  P Dwivedi,  C N Hahn (1996)
            Transcription of the CYP24 gene is induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3 through a vitamin D receptor-dependent process. The functional activities of three possible vitamin D response elements (VDREs), located on the antisense strand of the rat CYP24 promoter, were investigated by transient expression of native and mutant promoter constructs in COS-1, JTC-12, and ROS 17/2.8 cells. A putative VDRE with a half-site spacing of 6 base pairs at -249/-232 (VDRE-3) did not contribute to 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced expression in the native promoter, although activity has been reported when the element was fused to the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter. Two VDREs with half-site spacings of 3 base pairs at -150/-136 and -258/-244 (VDRE-1 and VDRE-2, respectively), showed transcriptional synergism in COS-1 cells when treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10(-7) to 10(-11) M). The contribution of both VDREs was hormone-concentration dependent from 10(-10) to 10(-12) M, with VDRE-1 demonstrating greatest sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)2D3. Transactivation by VDRE-1 was always greater than VDRE-2, but the converse was observed for the binding of vitamin D receptor-retinoid X receptor complex by each VDRE in gel mobility shift assays. The synergy observed between VDRE-1 and VDRE-2 may have important implications in cellular responses to different circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3.
              • Record: found
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              Metabolic studies using recombinant escherichia coli cells producing rat mitochondrial CYP24 CYP24 can convert 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to calcitroic acid.

               T Sakaki,  N Sawada,  Y Nonaka (1999)
              Previously we expressed rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) cDNA in Escherichia coli JM109 and showed that CYP24 catalyses three-step monooxygenation towards 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [Akiyoshi-Shibata, M., Sakaki, T., Ohyama, Y., Noshiro, M., Okuda, K. & Yabusaki, Y. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 224, 335-343]. In this study, we demonstrate further oxidation by CYP24 including four- and six-step monooxygenation towards 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. When the substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was added to a culture of recombinant E. coli, four metabolites, 24, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 24-oxo-25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24-oxo-23, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23-hydroxyvitamin D3 were observed. These results indicate that CYP24 catalyses at least four-step monooxygenation toward 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Furthermore, in-vivo and in-vitro metabolic studies on 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 clearly indicated that CYP24 catalyses six-step monooxygenation to convert 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 into calcitroic acid which is known as a final metabolite of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for excretion in bile. These results strongly suggest that CYP24 is largely responsible for the metabolism of both 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2003
                12 September 2003
                : 94
                : 4
                : p62-p73
                Departments of aEndocrinology and bExperimental Medicine and Nephrology and cClinical Biochemistry, St. Bartholomew’s and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
                72519 Nephron Physiol 2003;94:p62–p73
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 43, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/72519
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