The adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. In the present study, we surveyed the species composition of commercial Radix Clerodendri Japonicum products using DNA barcoding as a supervisory method. A reference database for plant-material DNA-barcode was successfully constructed with 48 voucher samples from 12 Clerodendrum species. The database was used to identify 27 Radix Clerodendri Japonicum decoction piece samples purchased from drug stores and hospitals. The DNA sequencing results revealed that only 1 decoction piece (3.70%) was authentic C. japonicum, as recorded in the Dai Pharmacopeia, whereas the other samples were all adulterants, indicating a potential safety issue. The results indicate that decoction pieces that are available in the market have complex origins and that DNA barcoding is a suitable tool for regulation of Dai medicines.