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      A Lipidomic Analysis of Leaves of Esca-Affected Grapevine Suggests a Role for Galactolipids in the Defense Response and Appearance of Foliar Symptoms

      research-article
      1 , 2 , * , 1 , 2
      Biology
      MDPI
      Esca, lipids, metabolomics, brown wood streaking, lipidome, tiger-stripes, phospholipids, sterols, mass spectrometry, hormones

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          Abstract

          Both qualitative and quantitative changes occur in the lipid composition of Vitis vinifera L. tissues, which may compromise the defense response against Esca complex disease, a widespread and damaging trunk disease. In this study, a lipidomic analysis of grapevine leaves is conducted to assess how lipid membrane remodeling relates to the emergence and progression of Esca foliar symptoms. In total, 208 molecular species (including lipids, four hormones, and some other compounds of the metabolism of lipids) were detected. Lipid species were readily assigned to the classes fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and prenol lipids. Using different clustering analyses, distinct metabolic pathways stimulated at different stages of disease development were characterized. These analyses revealed consistent changes in the abundance of 13 galactolipids and two diacylglycerolipids. Overall, the observations indicated an increment in the levels of these lipid species in leaves of asymptomatic vines and a progressive drop with increasing foliar symptom severity in symptomatic vines. Five fatty acids also appear to exert a central role in the etiopathogenesis of Esca complex disease because of their accumulation in leaves of asymptomatic vines, namely, heptadecanoic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, arachidonic, and stearic acids. Symptomatic leaves were characterized by high levels of all lipid classes, except for galactolipids, lyso-galactolipids, and compounds relevant to the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids, that exhibited decreased levels. The data also suggested a jasmonic acid-associated signaling mechanism activation upon the invasion of woods by Esca-associated fungi, compared with abscisic and salicylic acids. Further research is required for validation of these results with additional molecular analyses using more vine cultivars.

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          Most cited references54

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          MS-DIAL: Data Independent MS/MS Deconvolution for Comprehensive Metabolome Analysis

          Data-independent acquisition (DIA) in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provides more comprehensive untargeted acquisition of molecular data. Here we provide an open-source software pipeline, MS-DIAL, to demonstrate how DIA improves simultaneous identification and quantification of small molecules by mass spectral deconvolution. For reversed phase LC-MS/MS, our program with an enriched LipidBlast library identified total 1,023 lipid compounds from nine algal strains to highlight their chemotaxonomic relationships.
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            Integrated, nontargeted ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry platform for the identification and relative quantification of the small-molecule complement of biological systems.

            To address the challenges associated with metabolomics analyses, such as identification of chemical structures and elimination of experimental artifacts, we developed a platform that integrated the chemical analysis, including identification and relative quantification, data reduction, and quality assurance components of the process. The analytical platform incorporated two separate ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS(2)) injections; one injection was optimized for basic species, and the other was optimized for acidic species. This approach permitted the detection of 339 small molecules, a total instrument analysis time of 24 min (two injections at 12 min each), while maintaining a median process variability of 9%. The resulting MS/MS(2) data were searched against an in-house generated authentic standard library that included retention time, molecular weight (m/z), preferred adducts, and in-source fragments as well as their associated MS/MS spectra for all molecules in the library. The library allowed the rapid and high-confidence identification of the experimentally detected molecules based on a multiparameter match without need for additional analyses. This integrated platform enabled the high-throughput collection and relative quantitative analysis of analytical data and identified a large number and broad spectrum of molecules with a high degree of confidence.
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              Fatty Acid- and Lipid-Mediated Signaling in Plant Defense.

              Fatty acids and lipids, which are major and essential constituents of all plant cells, not only provide structural integrity and energy for various metabolic processes but can also function as signal transduction mediators. Lipids and fatty acids can act as both intracellular and extracellular signals. In addition, cyclic and acyclic products generated during fatty acid metabolism can also function as important chemical signals. This review summarizes the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids and their involvement in pathogen defense.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biology (Basel)
                Biology (Basel)
                biology
                Biology
                MDPI
                2079-7737
                04 September 2020
                September 2020
                : 9
                : 9
                : 268
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal; icortez@ 123456utad.pt
                [2 ]Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: pgoufo@ 123456utad.pt
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9242-5297
                Article
                biology-09-00268
                10.3390/biology9090268
                7563498
                32899845
                997fd167-4971-4957-a27c-5abf4dae7880
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 07 August 2020
                : 02 September 2020
                Categories
                Article

                esca,lipids,metabolomics,brown wood streaking,lipidome,tiger-stripes,phospholipids,sterols,mass spectrometry,hormones

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