The localization of oxytocin (OT) binding sites and vasopressin (VP) binding sites of the V1a subtype was investigated by radioautography in kidneys of rabbits, mice and meriones during postnatal development and in the adult, and in the human kidney. Kidney sections were incubated in the presence of selective radioiodinated OT and V1a antagonists, respectively. The localizations were compared with those previously described in the rat. The main finding of the study was the almost constant presence in the cortex of V1a binding sites in the connecting tubule, the cortical collecting duct and in the juxtaglomerular apparatus (on the intra- and extraglomerular mesangium and the afferent arteriole). This distribution suggests an interaction of VP via V1a receptors and the kallikrein-kinin system in the kidney. OT binding sites, in comparison with V1a binding sites, were fewer and less constantly detectable in the kidney of the different species. In the mouse, their presence on the limbs of Henle’s loop in the medulla points to the possibility of their involvement in the medullary concentrating process. In the kidneys of the various species, OT and V1a binding sites occurred always in differential structures. In contrast, in the human kidney cortex, a colocalization of OT and V1a binding sites was almost constantly observed. This raises the question as to the specificity of the neurohypophysial hormone receptors in the human kidney.