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      A decade of clinical development of PARP inhibitors in perspective

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          Abstract

          Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer, and often is the result of altered DNA repair capacities in tumour cells. DNA damage repair defects are common in different cancer types; these alterations can also induce tumour-specific vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically. In 2009, a first-in-man clinical trial of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib clinically validated the synthetic lethal interaction between inhibition of PARP1, a key sensor of DNA damage, and BRCA1/BRCA2 deficiency. In this review, we summarize a decade of PARP inhibitor clinical development, a work that has resulted in the registration of several PARP inhibitors in breast (olaparib and talazoparib) and ovarian cancer (olaparib, niraparib and rucaparib, either alone or following platinum chemotherapy as maintenance therapy). Over the past 10 years, our knowledge on the mechanism of action of PARP inhibitor as well as how tumours become resistant has been extended, and we summarise this work here. We also discuss opportunities for expanding the precision medicine approach with PARP inhibitors, identifying a wider population who could benefit from this drug class. This includes developing and validating better predictive biomarkers for patient stratification, mainly based on homologous recombination defects beyond BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations, identifying DNA repair deficient tumours in other cancer types such as prostate or pancreatic cancer, or by designing combination therapies with PARP inhibitors.

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          Most cited references31

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          Oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and recurrent ovarian cancer: a proof-of-concept trial.

          Olaparib is a novel, orally active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that induces synthetic lethality in homozygous BRCA-deficient cells. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of olaparib for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In this international, multicentre, phase 2 study, we enrolled two sequential cohorts of women (aged >or=18 years) with confirmed genetic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, and recurrent, measurable disease. The study was undertaken in 12 centres in Australia, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the USA. The first cohort (n=33) was given continuous oral olaparib at the maximum tolerated dose of 400 mg twice daily, and the second cohort (n=24) was given continuous oral olaparib at 100 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00494442. Patients had been given a median of three (range 1-16) previous chemotherapy regimens. ORR was 11 (33%) of 33 patients (95% CI 20-51) in the cohort assigned to olaparib 400 mg twice daily, and three (13%) of 24 (4-31) in the cohort assigned to 100 mg twice daily. In patients given olaparib 400 mg twice daily, the most frequent causally related adverse events were nausea (grade 1 or 2, 14 [42%]; grade 3 or 4, two [6%]), fatigue (grade 1 or 2, ten [30%]; grade 3 or 4, one [3%]), and anaemia (grade 1 or two, five [15%]; grade 3 or 4, one [3%]). The most frequent causally related adverse events in the cohort given 100 mg twice daily were nausea (grade 1 or 2, seven [29%]; grade 3 or 4, two [8%]) and fatigue (grade 1 or 2, nine [38%]; none grade 3 or 4). Findings from this phase 2 study provide positive proof of concept of the efficacy and tolerability of genetically targeted treatment with olaparib in BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer. AstraZeneca. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Deficiency in the repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination and sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition.

            Deficiency in either of the breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 or BRCA2 induces profound cellular sensitivity to the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. We hypothesized that the critical role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the repair of double-strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) was the underlying reason for this sensitivity. Here, we examine the effects of deficiency of several proteins involved in HR on sensitivity to PARP inhibition. We show that deficiency of RAD51, RAD54, DSS1, RPA1, NBS1, ATR, ATM, CHK1, CHK2, FANCD2, FANCA, or FANCC induces such sensitivity. This suggests that BRCA-deficient cells are, at least in part, sensitive to PARP inhibition because of HR deficiency. These results indicate that PARP inhibition might be a useful therapeutic strategy not only for the treatment of BRCA mutation-associated tumors but also for the treatment of a wider range of tumors bearing a variety of deficiencies in the HR pathway or displaying properties of 'BRCAness.'
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              Olaparib in patients with recurrent high-grade serous or poorly differentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer: a phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised study.

              Olaparib (AZD2281) is a small-molecule, potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of this drug in patients without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations with advanced triple-negative breast cancer or high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian cancer. In this phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised study, women with advanced high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer were enrolled and received olaparib 400 mg twice a day. Patients were stratified according to whether they had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation or not. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). All patients who received treatment were included in the analysis of toxic effects, and patients who had measurable lesions at baseline were included in the primary efficacy analysis. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00679783. 91 patients were enrolled (65 with ovarian cancer and 26 breast cancer) and 90 were treated between July 8, 2008, and Sept 24, 2009. In the ovarian cancer cohorts, 64 patients received treatment. 63 patients had target lesions and therefore were evaluable for objective response as per RECIST. In these patients, confirmed objective responses were seen in seven (41%; 95% CI 22-64) of 17 patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and 11 (24%; 14-38) of 46 without mutations. No confirmed objective responses were reported in patients with breast cancer. The most common adverse events were fatigue (45 [70%] of patients with ovarian cancer, 13 [50%] of patients with breast cancer), nausea (42 [66%] and 16 [62%]), vomiting (25 [39%] and nine [35%]), and decreased appetite (23 [36%] and seven [27%]). Our study suggests that olaparib is a promising treatment for women with ovarian cancer and further assessment of the drug in clinical trials is needed. AstraZeneca. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Oncol
                Ann. Oncol
                annonc
                Annals of Oncology
                Oxford University Press
                0923-7534
                1569-8041
                September 2019
                20 June 2019
                20 June 2019
                : 30
                : 9 , Suppressed immune microenvironment and repertoire in brain metastases from patients with resected NSCLC
                : 1437-1447
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO) , Barcelona
                [2 ] Vall d´Hebron University Hospital , Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]The CRUK Gene Function Laboratory
                [4 ]The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research , London
                [5 ]The Breast Cancer Now Research Unit, Guy’s Cancer Centre, Kings College , London
                [6 ]The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust , London
                [7 ]The Institute of Cancer Research , London, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Prof. Johann S. de Bono, Experimental Cancer Medicine, Division of Clinical Studies, The Institute of Cancer Research, Drug Development Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Rd, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK. Tel: +44-2087224028; Fax: +44-2086427979; E-mail: johann.de-bono@ 123456icr.ac.uk
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2034-595X
                Article
                mdz192
                10.1093/annonc/mdz192
                6771225
                31218365
                999af540-a63e-422d-aa3f-46e57f780f2a
                © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                History
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funded by: Prostate Cancer Foundation 10.13039/100000892
                Funded by: Instituto de Salud Carlos III 10.13039/501100004587
                Funded by: FERO Foundation
                Funded by: Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer
                Funded by: FERO foundation
                Funded by: AECC-JP Barcelona
                Funded by: Cancer Research UK 10.13039/501100000289
                Funded by: Department of Health 10.13039/501100003921
                Award ID: C12540/A25128
                Funded by: NHS funding
                Funded by: NIHR Biomedical Research Centre
                Funded by: Institute of Cancer Research 10.13039/501100000027
                Funded by: National Institute for Health Research 10.13039/501100000272
                Funded by: NIHR 10.13039/100006662
                Categories
                Reviews

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                parp inhibitors,dna repair,clinical trials
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                parp inhibitors, dna repair, clinical trials

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