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      Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Morphine Attenuate Growth Hormone Secretagogue-Induced Activation of the Arcuate Nucleus in the Male Rat

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          Abstract

          Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) administered systemically selectively induce growth hormone (GH) release from the pituitary and the expression of Fos protein in arcuate nucleus neurons. Both the control of GH release and the expression of the GHS receptor in the arcuate nucleus are thought to be regulated, at least in part, by the negative feedback actions of GH. In this study, we utilized the immunocytochemical detection of Fos protein to examine the effects of morphine- and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH release on the activation of arcuate nucleus neurons following GHS administration. Given alone, two structurally different GHS induced significant amounts of Fos-LI in the arcuate nucleus of male rats, suggesting activation of cells in this region. Prior administration of morphine or GHRH significantly reduced the number of Fos-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus of rats injected with either GHS, although when given together, morphine and GHRH did not produce a greater reduction in Fos expression than when given alone. In no case was there a complete reduction in Fos expression, indicating that some arcuate nucleus neurons are not subject to the feedback effects of endogenous GH. These results provide evidence that, in the male rat, GH can feedback to the hypothalamus, altering the responsiveness of neurons involved in the central response to GHS.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Distribution of mRNA encoding the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in brain and peripheral tissues

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            Systemic administration of growth hormone-releasing peptide activates hypothalamic arcuate neurons.

            The synthetic hexapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide selectively releases growth hormone in many species including man. Growth hormone-releasing peptide directly stimulates growth hormone release by an action at the level of the pituitary, at a different receptor site to that for the endogenous 44-amino acid peptide, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and when administered with growth hormone-releasing hormone has a synergistic effect. In addition to this pituitary action, we have suggested that the potent in vivo growth hormone-releasing activity of growth hormone-releasing peptide reflects a hypothalamic action and growth hormone-releasing peptide binding sites have been reported to be present in the hypothalamus. We have now found more direct evidence for a hypothalamic action of growth hormone-releasing peptide in two ways. First, we have found that a sub-population of hypothalamic neurons show strongly increased fos expression in response to systemic growth hormone-releasing peptide administration. Fos is the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, which is induced in many neuronal systems following their activation. Second, extracellular recordings from putative growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons in the arcuate nucleus showed that growth hormone-releasing peptide also stimulates the firing of neurons in this area.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEN
              Neuroendocrinology
              10.1159/issn.0028-3835
              Neuroendocrinology
              S. Karger AG
              0028-3835
              1423-0194
              1999
              August 1999
              16 August 1999
              : 70
              : 2
              : 101-106
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, Edinburgh, UK and bHuffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
              Article
              54464 Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:101–106
              10.1159/000054464
              10461024
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, References: 30, Pages: 6
              Categories
              Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Growth Hormone Secretagogues

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