The first case of exercise-induced acute renal failure (EIARF) is reported measuring the blood flow and arterial resistance in the kidney by pulsed Doppler ultrasound. A 20-year-old Japanese male suffered from severe loin pain and non-oliguric acute renal failure after strenuous exercise. Serum myoglobin and creatine phosphokinase were normal and urinary myoglobin was not detectable. The Doppler pattern in several segmental arteries showed a slow end-diastolic velocity (EV) and a high resistance index (RI), indicating increased renal vascular resistance, which suggested severe renal vasoconstriction. Three days later, the EV had apparently increased and the RI normalized in accordance with improvement of renal function. The ultrasound Doppler technique is useful for the detection of a decrease in arterial blood flow on real time and for the diagnosis of EIARF.