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      Physical recovery, mental detachment and sleep as predictors of injury and mental energy


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          Although sports activities are generally considered beneficial to people’s health and well-being, they can cause injuries and increased fatigue. Guided by the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Recovery Model, this study hypothesized that physical recovery and mental detachment from sport-related activities would prevent injury and enhance mental energy. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 161 recreational athletes. Structural equation modelling analyses showed that mental detachment was negatively associated with injury and positively associated with mental energy. Sleep deprivation partially mediated the relation between mental detachment and mental energy. These findings imply an important role for mental detachment in maintaining people’s health and well-being.

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          Most cited references41

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          Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: a new look at the interface between nonwork and work.

          This study examined work-related outcomes of recovery during leisure time. A total of 147 employees completed a questionnaire and a daily survey over a period of 5 consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses showed that day-level recovery was positively related to day-level work engagement and day-level proactive behavior (personal initiative, pursuit of learning) during the subsequent work day. The data suggest considerable daily fluctuations in behavior and attitudes at work, with evidence that these are related to prior experience and opportunity for recovery in the nonwork domain.
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            Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise.

            Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance.
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              Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students.

              Two studies assessed whether measures of health, well-being, and sleepiness are better related to sleep quality or sleep quantity. In both studies, subjects completed a 7-day sleep log followed by a battery of surveys pertaining to health, well-being, and sleepiness. In subjects sleeping an average of 7 hours a night, average sleep quality was better related to health, affect balance, satisfaction with life, and feelings of tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion than average sleep quantity. In addition, average sleep quality was better related to sleepiness than sleep quantity. These results indicate that health care professionals should focus on sleep quality in addition to sleep quantity in their efforts to understand the role of sleep in daily life.

                Author and article information

                J Health Psychol
                J Health Psychol
                Journal of Health Psychology
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                03 May 2017
                November 2019
                : 24
                : 13
                : 1828-1838
                [1 ]Eindhoven University of Technology, Human Performance Management Group, The Netherlands
                [2 ]University of South Australia, Australia
                [3 ]Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [*]Yannick A Balk, Human Performance Management Group, Department of Industrial Engineering & Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Email: y.a.balk@ 123456tue.nl
                © The Author(s) 2017

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).


                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                exercise, health, recovery, sleep, well-being


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