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      Evolutionary history and phylogeographic relationships of shrews from Sorex araneus group

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          Abstract

          Shrews of the Sorex genus are an evolutionarily successful group that includes more than 77 species widely distributed in Eurasia and North America. The genus is one of the rare cases where karyotypic changes reflect well the evolutionary relationships among its species. The taxa showing the greatest variation in karyotype are usually classified into the Sorex araneus group. Its evolution was associated with chromosomal rearrangements, which could have promoted fast diversification of this group into many chromosomal races and species. These processes were additionally complicated by introgressions of mitochondrial DNA, which made the evolutionary history of this group quite complex and difficult to infer. To tackle the problem, we performed multi-method phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial cytochrome b that is considered a good molecular marker available for many representatives of Sorex. The results were compared with phylogenies based on chromosomal rearrangement data and put into temporal and spatial context using molecular dating and historical biogeography methods. We complemented the study with the estimation of diversification rates within the S. araneus group as well as comparing the results with paleontological records and climatic oscillations within the last 4 million years. Based on the gathered data, we proposed a hypothetical scenario for the evolution and geographic dispersion of species belonging to the S. araneus group. The shrews began to diversify about 2.7 million years ago in Eurasia and then migrated at least twice to North America. The evolution of shrews was driven by Pleistocene glacial and interglacial cycles, which increased their speciation rate and the emergence of new lineages. The migrations of populations were accompanied by introgressions of mitochondrial DNA into native shrews and occurred at least twice.

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          A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records

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            Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation

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              RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies): a tool for historical biogeography.

              We announce the release of Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP), a user-friendly software package for inferring historical biogeography through reconstructing ancestral geographic distributions on phylogenetic trees. RASP utilizes the widely used Statistical-Dispersal Vicariance Analysis (S-DIVA), the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis (DEC) model (Lagrange), a Statistical DEC model (S-DEC) and BayArea. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify a phylogenetic tree or set of trees and geographic distribution constraints, draws pie charts on the nodes of a phylogenetic tree to indicate levels of uncertainty, and generates high-quality exportable graphical results. RASP can run on both Windows and Mac OS X platforms. All documentation and source code for RASP is freely available at http://mnh.scu.edu.cn/soft/blog/RASP.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: ResourcesRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                26 June 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Genomics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Genetics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
                University of Innsbruck, AUSTRIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-09192
                10.1371/journal.pone.0179760
                5484494
                28650986
                99d27bf1-ae4e-4b52-9b6b-a72ae847f415
                © 2017 Mackiewicz et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 1, Pages: 26
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Wroclaw Center of Biotechnology program „The Leading National Research Center (KNOW) for years 2014-2018”
                Award Recipient :
                Publication costs were supported by Wroclaw Center of Biotechnology program “The Leading National Research Center (KNOW) for years 2014-2018”.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Evolutionary Biology
                Evolutionary Systematics
                Phylogenetics
                Phylogenetic Analysis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Taxonomy
                Evolutionary Systematics
                Phylogenetics
                Phylogenetic Analysis
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Data Management
                Taxonomy
                Evolutionary Systematics
                Phylogenetics
                Phylogenetic Analysis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Shrews
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                Genetics
                DNA
                Forms of DNA
                Mitochondrial DNA
                Biology and life sciences
                Biochemistry
                Nucleic acids
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                Mitochondrial DNA
                Earth Sciences
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                Geologic Time
                Cenozoic Era
                Quaternary Period
                Pleistocene Epoch
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Heredity
                Genetic Mapping
                Haplotypes
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biogeography
                Phylogeography
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Biogeography
                Phylogeography
                Earth Sciences
                Geography
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                Population Genetics
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                Population Biology
                Population Genetics
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