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Innovative Self-Cleaning and Biocompatible Polyester Textiles Nano-Decorated with Fe–N-Doped Titanium Dioxide

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      Abstract

      The development of innovative technologies to modify natural textiles holds an important impact for medical applications, including the prevention of contamination with microorganisms, particularly in the hospital environment. In our study, Fe and N co-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles have been obtained via the hydrothermal route, at moderate temperature, followed by short thermal annealing at 400 °C. These particles were used to impregnate polyester (PES) materials which have been evaluated for their morphology, photocatalytic performance, antimicrobial activity against bacterial reference strains, and in vitro biocompatibility on human skin fibroblasts. Microscopic examination and quantitative assays have been used to evaluate the cellular morphology and viability, cell membrane integrity, and inflammatory response. All treated PES materials specifically inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacilli strains after 15 min of contact, being particularly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PES fabrics treated with photocatalysts did not affect cell membrane integrity nor induce inflammatory processes, proving good biocompatibility. These results demonstrate that the treatment of PES materials with TiO 2-1% Fe–N particles could provide novel biocompatible fabrics with short term protection against microbial colonization, demonstrating their potential for the development of innovative textiles that could be used in biomedical applications for preventing patients’ accidental contamination with microorganisms from the hospital environment.

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      Most cited references 58

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      Overview of nosocomial infections caused by gram-negative bacilli.

       R Edwards,  ,  Robert P. Gaynes (2005)
      We analyzed data from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System from 1986-2003 to determine the epidemiology of gram-negative bacilli in intensive care units (ICUs) for the most frequent types of hospital-acquired infection: pneumonia, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), and bloodstream infection (BSI). We analyzed >410,000 bacterial isolates associated with hospital-acquired infections in ICUs during 1986-2003. In 2003, gram-negative bacilli were associated with 23.8% of BSIs, 65.2% of pneumonia episodes, 33.8% of SSIs, and 71.1% of UTIs. The percentage of BSIs associated with gram-negative bacilli decreased from 33.2% in 1986 to 23.8% in 2003. The percentage of SSIs associated with gram-negative bacilli decreased from 56.5% in 1986 to 33.8% in 2003. The percentages pneumonia episodes and UTIs associated with gram-negative bacilli remained constant during the study period. The proportion of ICU pneumonia episodes associated with Acinetobacter species increased from 4% in 1986 to 7.0% in 2003 (P<.001, by the Cochran-Armitage chi2 test for trend). Significant increases in resistance rates were uniformly seen for selected antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Gram-negative bacilli are commonly associated with hospital-acquired infections in ICUs. The proportion of Acinetobacter species associated with ICU pneumonia increased from 4% in 1986 to 7.0% in 2003.
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        In vitro cytotoxicity assays: comparison of LDH, neutral red, MTT and protein assay in hepatoma cell lines following exposure to cadmium chloride.

        The aim of this study was to compare four in vitro cytotoxicity assays and determine their ability to detect early cytotoxic events. Two hepatoma cell lines, namely HTC and HepG2 cells, were exposed to cadmium chloride (0-300 microM) for 3, 5 and 8 h. Following exposure to the toxic metal cytotoxicity was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay (LDH), a protein assay, the neutral red assay and the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In HTC cells no toxicity was observed for any incubation period when the LDH leakage, the MTT and the protein assay were employed whereas the neutral red assay revealed early cytotoxicity starting after incubation of HTC cells with CdCl(2) for 3 h. In the case of HepG2 cells the MTT assay reveals cytotoxicity due to CdCl(2) exposure after 3 h whereas no such effect is seen with the other three assays. Following 5 h exposure of HepG2 cells to CdCl(2), toxicity is observed with the MTT assay at lower concentrations compared to the ones required for detection of toxicity with the LDH leakage and the neutral red assay. In conclusion different sensitivity was observed for each assay with the neutral red and the MTT assay being the most sensitive in detecting cytotoxic events compared to the LDH leakage and the protein assay.
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          Charge Transfer on the Nanoscale:  Current Status

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest, Romania; cristinai.nica@ 123456gmail.com (I.C.N.); miruna.stan@ 123456bio.unibuc.ro (M.S.S.)
            [2 ]Department of Botanic-Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1-3 Aleea Portocalelor, 60101 Bucharest, Romania; bmarcelica@ 123456yahoo.com (M.P.); veronica.lazar2009@ 123456gmail.com (V.L.)
            [3 ]Research Institute of the University of Bucharest—ICUB, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest, Romania; gratiela87@ 123456gmail.com
            [4 ]Department of Agricultural Development, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece; empezirt@ 123456agro.duth.gr
            [5 ]National R & D Institute for Textiles and Leather Bucharest (INCDTP), 16 Lucretiu Patrascanu, 030508 Bucharest, Romania; iordacheovidiu.g@ 123456certex.ro (O.G.I.); elena.varzaru@ 123456certex.ro (E.V.); iuliana.dumitrescu@ 123456certex.ro (I.D.)
            [6 ]National Institute of Materials Physics (NIMP), Atomistilor 405A, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; mfeder@ 123456infim.ro (M.F.); fvasiliu@ 123456infim.ro (F.V.); imercioniu@ 123456infim.ro (I.M.); diamand@ 123456infim.ro (L.D.)
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: anca.dinischiotu@ 123456bio.unibuc.ro (A.D.); carmen.chifiriuc@ 123456gmail.com (M.C.C.); Tel./Fax: +40-21-318-1575 (A.D.); +40-21-318-1576 (M.C.C.)
            Contributors
            Role: Academic Editor
            Journal
            Nanomaterials (Basel)
            Nanomaterials (Basel)
            nanomaterials
            Nanomaterials
            MDPI
            2079-4991
            15 November 2016
            November 2016
            : 6
            : 11
            5245744
            10.3390/nano6110214
            nanomaterials-06-00214
            (Academic Editor)
            © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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