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      Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization and Treatment of a Cohort With Familial Tumoral Calcinosis/Hyperostosis-Hyperphosphatemia Syndrome : PHENOTYPIC/GENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION & TREATMENT OF COHORT WITH FTC/HHS

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          Familial tumoral calcinosis (FTC)/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), or KLOTHO. The result is functional deficiency of, or resistance to, intact FGF23 (iFGF23), causing hyperphosphatemia, increased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus (TRP), elevated or inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), ectopic calcifications, and/or diaphyseal hyperostosis. Eight subjects with FTC/HHS were studied and treated. Clinical manifestations varied, even within families, ranging from asymptomatic to large, disabling calcifications. All subjects had hyperphosphatemia, increased TRP, and elevated or inappropriately normal 1,25D. C-terminal FGF23 was markedly elevated whereas iFGF23 was comparatively low, consistent with increased FGF23 cleavage. Radiographs ranged from diaphyseal hyperostosis to massive calcification. Two subjects with severe calcifications also had overwhelming systemic inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). GALNT3 mutations were identified in seven subjects; no causative mutation was found in the eighth. Biopsies from four subjects showed ectopic calcification and chronic inflammation, with areas of heterotopic ossification observed in one subject. Treatment with low phosphate diet, phosphate binders, and phosphaturia-inducing therapies was prescribed with variable response. One subject experienced complete resolution of a calcific mass after 13 months of medical treatment. In the two subjects with systemic inflammation, interleukin-1 (IL-1) antagonists significantly decreased CRP levels with resolution of calcinosis cutis and perilesional inflammation in one subject and improvement of overall well-being in both subjects. This cohort expands the phenotype and genotype of FTC/HHS and demonstrates the range of clinical manifestations despite similar biochemical profiles and genetic mutations. Overwhelming systemic inflammation has not been described previously in FTC/HHS; the response to IL-1 antagonists suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful adjuvants. In addition, this is the first description of heterotopic ossification reported in FTC/HHS, possibly mediated by the adjacent inflammation. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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          Fibroblast growth factor 23 in oncogenic osteomalacia and X-linked hypophosphatemia.

          Mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) cause autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. Clinical and laboratory findings in this disorder are similar to those in oncogenic osteomalacia, in which tumors abundantly express FGF-23 messenger RNA, and to those in X-linked hypophosphatemia, which is caused by inactivating mutations in a phosphate-regulating endopeptidase called PHEX. Recombinant FGF-23 induces phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia in vivo, suggesting that it has a role in phosphate regulation. To determine whether FGF-23 circulates in healthy persons and whether it is elevated in those with oncogenic osteomalacia or X-linked hypophosphatemia, an immunometric assay was developed to measure it. Using affinity-purified, polyclonal antibodies against [Tyr223]FGF-23(206-222)amide and [Tyr224]FGF-23(225-244)amide, we developed a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detects equivalently recombinant human FGF-23, the mutant form in which glutamine is substituted for arginine at position 179 (R179Q), and synthetic human FGF-23(207-244)amide. Plasma or serum samples from 147 healthy adults (mean [+/-SD] age, 48.4+/-19.6 years) and 26 healthy children (mean age, 10.9+/-5.5 years) and from 17 patients with oncogenic osteomalacia (mean age, 43.0+/-13.3 years) and 21 patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (mean age, 34.9+/-17.2 years) were studied. Mean FGF-23 concentrations in the healthy adults and children were 55+/-50 and 69+/-36 reference units (RU) per milliliter, respectively. Four patients with oncogenic osteomalacia had concentrations ranging from 426 to 7970 RU per milliliter, which normalized after tumor resection. FGF-23 concentrations were 481+/-528 RU per milliliter in those with suspected oncogenic osteomalacia and 353+/-510 RU per milliliter (range, 31 to 2335) in those with X-linked hypophosphatemia. FGF-23 is readily detectable in the plasma or serum of healthy persons and can be markedly elevated in those with oncogenic osteomalacia or X-linked hypophosphatemia, suggesting that this growth factor has a role in phosphate homeostasis. FGF-23 measurements might improve the management of phosphate-wasting disorders. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Isolated C-terminal tail of FGF23 alleviates hypophosphatemia by inhibiting FGF23-FGFR-Klotho complex formation.

            Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption by activating FGF receptor (FGFR) 1c in a Klotho-dependent fashion. The phosphaturic activity of FGF23 is abrogated by proteolytic cleavage at the RXXR motif that lies at the boundary between the FGF core homology domain and the 72-residue-long C-terminal tail of FGF23. Here, we show that the soluble ectodomains of FGFR1c and Klotho are sufficient to form a ternary complex with FGF23 in vitro. The C-terminal tail of FGF23 mediates binding of FGF23 to a de novo site generated at the composite FGFR1c-Klotho interface. Consistent with this finding, the isolated 72-residue-long C-terminal tail of FGF23 impairs FGF23 signaling by competing with full-length ligand for binding to the binary FGFR-Klotho complex. Injection of the FGF23 C-terminal tail peptide into healthy rats inhibits renal phosphate excretion and induces hyperphosphatemia. In a mouse model of renal phosphate wasting attributable to high FGF23, the FGF23 C-terminal peptide reduces phosphate excretion, leading to an increase in serum phosphate concentration. Our data indicate that proteolytic cleavage at the RXXR motif abrogates FGF23 activity by a dual mechanism: by removing the binding site for the binary FGFR-Klotho complex that resides in the C-terminal region of FGF23, and by generating an endogenous inhibitor of FGF23. We propose that peptides derived from the C-terminal tail of FGF23 or peptidomimetics and small-molecule organomimetics of the C-terminal tail can be used as therapeutics to treat renal phosphate wasting.
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              Mutations in GALNT3, encoding a protein involved in O-linked glycosylation, cause familial tumoral calcinosis.

              Familial tumoral calcinosis (FTC; OMIM 211900) is a severe autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that manifests with hyperphosphatemia and massive calcium deposits in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Using linkage analysis, we mapped the gene underlying FTC to 2q24-q31. This region includes the gene GALNT3, which encodes a glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating mucin-type O-glycosylation. Sequence analysis of GALNT3 identified biallelic deleterious mutations in all individuals with FTC, suggesting that defective post-translational modification underlies the disease.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
                J Bone Miner Res
                October 2016
                October 2016
                September 20 2016
                : 31
                : 10
                : 1845-1854
                [1 ]Skeletal Clinical Studies Unit, Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch; National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda MD USA
                [2 ]National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda MD USA
                [3 ]Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery; Virginia Cancer Specialists; Fairfax VA USA
                [4 ]Department of Medicine; Indiana University School of Medicine; Indianapolis IN USA
                [5 ]Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics; Indiana University School of Medicine; Indianapolis IN USA
                [6 ]National Heart; Lung and Blood Institute; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda MD USA
                [7 ]National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda MD USA
                [8 ]National Cancer Institute; National Institutes of Health; Bethesda MD USA
                [9 ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension; Pediatric Specialists of Virginia and Georgetown University School of Medicine; Fairfax VA USA
                [10 ]Department of Rheumatology; Pediatric Specialists of Virginia; Fairfax VA USA
                [11 ]Department of Pediatric Endocrinology; University of South Carolina School of Medicine; Columbia SC USA
                [12 ]Department of Pediatric Endocrinology; Emory University School of Medicine; Atlanta GA USA
                [13 ]Department of Pathology; Johns Hopkins Hospital; Baltimore MD USA
                © 2016
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jbmr.2870


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