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      Rising Diabetes Prevalence among Urban-Dwelling Black South Africans

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          Abstract

          ObjectiveTo examine the prevalence of and the association of psychosocial risk factors with diabetes in 25–74-year-old black Africans in Cape Town in 2008/09 and to compare the prevalence with a 1990 study.Research Design and MethodsA randomly selected cross-sectional sample had oral glucose tolerance tests. The prevalence of diabetes (1998 WHO criteria), other cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial measures, including sense of coherence (SOC), locus of control and adverse life events, were determined. The comparison of diabetes prevalence between this and a 1990 study used the 1985 WHO diabetes criteria.ResultsThere were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%). The age-standardised (SEGI) prevalence of diabetes was 13.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.0–15.1), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) 11.2% (9.2–13.1) and impaired fasting glycaemia 1.2% (0.6–1.9). Diabetes prevalence peaked in 65–74-year-olds (38.6%). Among diabetic participants, 57.9% were known and 38.6% treated. Using 1985 WHO criteria, age-standardised diabetes prevalence was higher by 53% in 2008/09 (12.2% (10.2–14.2)) compared to 1990 (8.0% (5.8–10.3)) and IGT by 67% (2008/09: 11.7% (9.8–13.7); 1990: 7.0% (4.9–9.1)). In women, older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.03–1.08, p<0.001), diabetes family history (OR: 3.13, 95%CI: 1.92–5.12, p<0.001), higher BMI (OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.20–1.82, p = 0.001), better quality housing (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 1.01–3.04, p = 0.047) and a lower SOC score (≤40) was positively associated with diabetes (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.37–4.80, p = 0.003). Diabetes was not associated with the other psychosocial measures in women or with any psychosocial measure in men. Only older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02–1.08, p = 0.002) and higher BMI (OR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.04–1.18, p = 0.003) were significantly associated with diabetes in men.ConclusionsThe current high prevalence of diabetes in urban-dwelling South Africans, and the likelihood of further rises given the high rates of IGT and obesity, is concerning. Multi-facetted diabetes prevention strategies are essential to address this burden.

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          Most cited references 21

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            Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data--or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India.

            Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, using principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita output and poverty. To validate the method and to show that the asset index predicts enrollments as accurately as expenditures, or more so, we use data sets from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Nepal that contain information on both expenditures and assets. The results show large, variable wealth gaps in children's enrollment across Indian states. On average a "rich" child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a "poor" child, but this gap varies from only 4.6 percentage points in Kerala to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 in Bihar.
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              Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation.

              To establish a unified working diagnostic tool for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) that is convenient to use in clinical practice and that can be used world-wide so that data from different countries can be compared. An additional aim was to highlight areas where more research into the MetS is needed. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) convened a workshop held 12-14 May 2004 in London, UK. The 21 participants included experts in the fields of diabetes, public health, epidemiology, lipidology, genetics, metabolism, nutrition and cardiology. There were participants from each of the five continents as well as from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). The workshop was sponsored by an educational grant from AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. The consensus statement emerged following detailed discussions at the IDF workshop. After the workshop, a writing group produced a consensus statement which was reviewed and approved by all participants. The IDF has produced a new set of criteria for use both epidemiologically and in clinical practice world-wide with the aim of identifying people with the MetS to clarify the nature of the syndrome and to focus therapeutic strategies to reduce the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. Guidance is included on how to compensate for differences in waist circumference and in regional adipose tissue distribution between different populations. The IDF has also produced recommendations for additional criteria that should be included when studying the MetS for research purposes. Finally, the IDF has identified areas where more studies are currently needed; these include research into the aetiology of the syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle Unit, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa
                [2 ]Chronic Disease Initiative in Africa, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [3 ]Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
                [4 ]University of Cape Town/Medical Research Council Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Cape Town, South Africa
                [5 ]Department of Psychiatry, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [6 ]Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Germany
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: NL has received honoraria from Novartis for serving on the steering committee for the Navigator Trial and travel support from Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly Laboratories and Sanofi Aventis. All other authors report no potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests, relevant to the subject of this manuscript. This study was partially funded by a commercial source (Servier Laboratories [South Africa]). This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: NP KS CL NSL. Analyzed the data: NP CL EVL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BV. Wrote the paper: NP KS CL EVL BV NSL.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                4 September 2012
                : 7
                : 9
                3433459
                22962583
                PONE-D-12-03850
                10.1371/journal.pone.0043336
                (Editor)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 9
                Funding
                This study was funded by an unrestricted grant from Servier Laboratories (South Africa), the Medical Research Council of South Africa, the Initiative for Cardiovascular Health Research in Developing Countries (IC Health) Foundation Council and Brigham Hospital/Harvard University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine
                Endocrinology
                Diabetic Endocrinology
                Epidemiology
                Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology
                Non-Clinical Medicine
                Health Care Quality
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
                Public Health
                Health Screening
                Preventive Medicine
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
                Social and Behavioral Sciences
                Psychology
                Psychological Stress

                Uncategorized

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