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      Dosimetric Considerations in Radioimmunotherapy and Systemic Radionuclide Therapies: A Review

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          Radiopharmaceutical therapy, once touted as the “magic bullet” in radiation oncology, is increasingly being used in the treatment of a variety of malignancies; albeit in later disease stages. With ever-increasing public and medical awareness of radiation effects, radiation dosimetry is becoming more important. Dosimetry allows administration of the maximum tolerated radiation dose to the tumor/organ to be treated but limiting radiation to critical organs. Traditional tumor dosimetry involved acquiring pretherapy planar scans and plasma estimates with a diagnostic dose of intended radiopharmaceuticals. New advancements in single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography systems allow semi-quantitative measurements of radiation dosimetry thus allowing treatments tailored to each individual patient.

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          Most cited references 87

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          Tolerance of normal tissue to therapeutic irradiation.

          The importance of knowledge on tolerance of normal tissue organs to irradiation by radiation oncologists cannot be overemphasized. Unfortunately, current knowledge is less than adequate. With the increasing use of 3-D treatment planning and dose delivery, this issue, particularly volumetric information, will become even more critical. As a part of the NCI contract N01 CM-47316, a task force, chaired by the primary author, was formed and an extensive literature search was carried out to address this issue. In this issue. In this manuscript we present the updated information on tolerance of normal tissues of concern in the protocols of this contract, based on available data, with a special emphasis on partial volume effects. Due to a lack of precise and comprehensive data base, opinions and experience of the clinicians from four universities involved in the contract have also been contributory. Obviously, this is not and cannot be a comprehensive work, which is beyond the scope of this contract.
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            131I-tositumomab therapy as initial treatment for follicular lymphoma.

            Advanced-stage follicular B-cell lymphoma is considered incurable. Anti-CD20 radioimmunotherapy is effective in patients who have had a relapse after chemotherapy or who have refractory follicular lymphoma, but it has not been tested in previously untreated patients. Seventy-six patients with stage III or IV follicular lymphoma received as initial therapy a single course of treatment with 131I-tositumomab therapy (registered as Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab [the Bexxar therapeutic regimen]). This consisted of a dosimetric dose of tositumomab and 131I-labeled tositumomab followed one week later by a therapeutic dose, delivering 75 cGy of radiation to the total body. Ninety-five percent of the patients had any response, and 75 percent had a complete response. The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect rearrangement of the BCL2 gene showed molecular responses in 80 percent of assessable patients who had a clinical complete response. After a median follow-up of 5.1 years, the actuarial 5-year progression-free survival for all patients was 59 percent, with a median progression-free survival of 6.1 years. The annualized rate of relapse progressively decreased over time: 25 percent, 13 percent, and 12 percent during the first, second, and third years, respectively, and 4.4 percent per year after three years. Of 57 patients who had a complete response, 40 remained in remission for 4.3 to 7.7 years. Hematologic toxicity was moderate, with no patient requiring transfusions or hematopoietic growth factors. No cases of myelodysplastic syndrome have been observed. A single one-week course of 131I-tositumomab therapy as initial treatment can induce prolonged clinical and molecular remissions in patients with advanced follicular lymphoma. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Renal toxicity of radiolabeled peptides and antibody fragments: mechanisms, impact on radionuclide therapy, and strategies for prevention.

              Peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs such as octreotide is an effective therapy against neuroendocrine tumors. Other radiolabeled peptides and antibody fragments are under investigation. Most of these compounds are cleared through the kidneys and reabsorbed and partially retained in the proximal tubules, causing dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. An overview of renal handling of radiolabeled peptides and resulting nephrotoxicity is presented, and strategies to reduce nephrotoxicity are discussed. Modification of size, charge, or structure of radiolabeled peptides can alter glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Coinfusion of competitive inhibitors of reabsorption also interferes with the interaction of peptides with renal endocytic receptors; coinfusion of basic amino acids is currently used for kidney protection in clinical PRRT. Furthermore, nephrotoxicity may be reduced by dose fractionation, use of radioprotectors, or use of mitigating agents. Decreasing the risk of nephrotoxicity allows for administration of higher radiation doses, increasing the effectiveness of PRRT.

                Author and article information

                World J Nucl Med
                World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jul-Dec 2011
                : 10
                : 2
                : 122-138
                Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, Columbia University, USA
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Kelvin Sui-Hoong Loke, Consultant, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. E-mail: drkelvinloke@
                Copyright: © World Journal of Nuclear Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Radiology & Imaging

                quality of life, radioimmunotherapy, radionuclide therapy


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