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      Differential Effects of Antihypertensive Drugs on Hypertension: Associated Risk Factors


      S. Karger AG

      Diabetes, Antihypertensive agents, risk factors, Coronary heart disease, mortality

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          The primary aim of the management of hypertension should be to prevenl coronary heart disease. Antihypertensive treatment should have a beneficial effect on the risk factors associated with coronary heart disease, particularly hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and/or glucose intolerance. Other important risk factors include central obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, hypokalemia, and smoking. In patients genetically predisposed to essential hypertension, metabolic alterations characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia tend to occui already before the development of hypertension, obesity, or redistribution of body fat. In the treatment of normotensive or borderline hypertensive diabetic patients, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have shown superiority to other agents due to their antiproteinuric effect and their beneficial influence on the glomerular filtration rate. ACE inhibitor treatment of patients with overt diabetic nephropathy has been reported to reduce the risk of mortality and the need for dialysis or transplantation. Beta blockers and thiazide diuretics are still the ‘gold standard’ of antihypertensive therapy in non-diabetic patients, as they offer at least some prognostic benefit, while the influence of the newer antihypertensive drugs on morbidity and mortality in these patients is not yet known. Nevertheless, since practicing physicians have to treat patients rather than statistical numbers, the current trend towards a more individualized selection, including the newer antihypertensive drugs with consideration of their metabolic, cardiac, and renal action profile, is also difficult to rebut. ACE inhibitors and most calcium antagonists have already evolved as the preferred drugs for the treatment of hypertension in diabetics due to their favorable effects on some of the cardiovascular and renal risk factors.

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          Author and article information

          S. Karger AG
          18 November 2008
          : 85
          : Suppl 1
          : 78-83
          Medizinische Poliklinik, Universität Bern, Schweiz
          176764 Cardiology 1994;85:78–83
          © 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 6
          Session III: Hypertension – When Is the Clinical Problem Solved?


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