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      The Effect of Intravitreal Ranibizumab on the Fellow Untreated Eye with Subfoveal Scarring due to Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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          Abstract

          Aim: Our purpose was to evaluate the possible effect of intravitreal ranibizumab on the fellow untreated eye with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and subfoveal scarring associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. One hundred eighty-seven ranibizumab-treated patients diagnosed as having subfoveal CNV scarring in the untreated eye were compared with a control group of untreated unilateral subfoveal CNV scarring. Inclusion criteria concerning treated eyes in the ranibizumab group complied with the MARINA and ANCHOR studies. Demographic data, clinical course, visual acuity, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings were evaluated. Results: Clinical improvement was confirmed in 24% of the patients in the ranibizumab group and in only 12.9% of the controls. Improvement was noted as early as 2–4 months (2.83 ± 0.75 months) after the initiation of treatment in the fellow eye compared with 33.25 ± 9.43 months in the control group (p = 0.01; Mann-Whitney U test). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrate the positive impact of ranibizumab on the visual acuity of the fellow untreated eye (p = 0.016; Log-Rank test). Conclusions: Ranibizumab might induce some therapeutic effect in selected cases of end-stage CNV scarring, which needs to be further examined. The VEGF levels in the compartments of the fellow eye of patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with ranibizumab need to be further evaluated.

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          Most cited references10

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          Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

          To report the biologic effect of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with retinal and iris neovascularization secondary to diabetes mellitus. Interventional, consecutive, retrospective, case series. Forty-five eyes of 32 patients with retinal and/or iris neovascularization secondary to diabetes mellitus. Patients received intravitreal bevacizumab (6.2 microg-1.25 mg). Ophthalmic evaluations included nonstandardized Snellen visual acuity (VA), complete ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. Change in fluorescein angiographic leakage of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Secondary outcomes included changes in Snellen VA. No significant ocular or systemic adverse events were observed. All patients with neovascularization demonstrated by fluorescein angiography (44/44 eyes) had complete (or at least partial) reduction in leakage of the neovascularization within 1 week after the injection. Complete resolution of angiographic leakage of neovascularization of the disc was noted in 19 of 26 (73%) eyes, and leakage of iris neovascularization completely resolved in 9 of 11 (82%) eyes. The leakage was noted to diminish as early as 24 hours after injection. In addition to the reduction in angiographic leakage, the neovascularization clinically appeared to involute in many patients with a reduction in the caliber or presence of perfused blood vessels. In 2 cases, a subtle decrease in leakage of retinal or iris neovascularization in the fellow uninjected eye was noted, raising the possibility that therapeutic systemic levels were achieved after intravitreal injection. Recurrence of fluorescein leakage varied. Recurrent leakage was seen as early as 2 weeks in one case, whereas in other cases, no recurrent leakage was noted at last follow-up of 11 weeks. Short-term results suggest that intravitreal bevacizumab is well tolerated and associated with a rapid regression of retinal and iris neovascularization secondary to PDR. A consistent biologic effect was noted, even with the lowest dose (6.2 microg) tested, supporting proof of concept. The observation of a possible therapeutic effect in the fellow eye raises concern that systemic side effects are possible in patients undergoing treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg), and lower doses may achieve a therapeutic result with less risk of systemic side effects. Further study is indicated.
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            Pharmacokinetics of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin).

            To describe the pharmacokinetics of 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin). Experimental animal study. Twenty Dutch-belted rabbits. One eye of each of 20 rabbits was injected with 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab. Both eyes of each of 4 rabbits were enucleated at days 1, 3, 8, 15, and 29. Bevacizumab concentrations were measured in aqueous fluid, whole vitreous, and serum. Bevacizumab concentrations in the aqueous, vitreous, and serum. Whereas vitreous concentrations of bevacizumab declined in a monoexponential fashion with a half-life of 4.32 days, concentrations of >10 microg/ml bevacizumab were maintained in the vitreous humor for 30 days. Bevacizumab concentrations in the aqueous humor of the injected eye reached a peak concentration of 37.7 microg/ml 3 days after drug administration. A maximum serum concentration of 3.3 mug/ml was achieved 8 days after intravitreal injection and the concentration fell below 1 microg/ml 29 days after injection. Elimination of bevacizumab from the aqueous humor and serum paralleled that found in the vitreous humor, with half-life values of 4.88 days and 6.86 days, respectively. Very low concentrations of bevacizumab were detected in the fellow uninjected eye. Concentrations of bevacizumab in the vitreous of the fellow eye varied incrementally, from 0.35 ng/ml at 1 day to 11.17 ng/ml at 4 weeks. Concentrations of bevacizumab in the aqueous humor of the fellow eye reached their peak at 1 week, at 29.4 ng/ml, and declined to 4.56 ng/ml at 4 weeks. The vitreous half-life of 1.25 mg intravitreal bevacizumab is 4.32 days in a rabbit eye. Very small amounts of bevacizumab were detected in the serum and in the fellow uninjected eye.
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              Pharmacokinetics of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis).

              To describe the pharmacokinetics of 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) and to compare it with that of 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin), using the same rabbit model. Experimental animal study. Twenty-eight Dutch-belted rabbits. One eye of each of 20 rabbits was injected with 0.5 mg of intravitreal ranibizumab. Both eyes of each of 4 rabbits were enucleated at days 1, 3, 8, 15, and 29. Ranibizumab concentrations were measured in aqueous fluid, whole vitreous, and serum. A further 8 rabbits were used to measure serum and fellow ranibizumab at additional time points of 3 and 8 hours. Ranibizumab concentrations in the aqueous, vitreous, and serum. Although vitreous concentrations of ranibizumab declined in a monoexponential fashion with a half-life of 2.88 days, concentrations of >0.1 microg/ml ranibizumab were maintained in the vitreous humor for 29 days. Ranibizumab concentrations in the aqueous humor of the injected eye reached a peak concentration of 17.9 microg/ml, 3 days after drug administration. Elimination of ranibizumab from the aqueous humor paralleled that found in the vitreous humor, with a half-life value of 2.84 days. No ranibizumab was detected in the serum or the fellow eye. In the rabbit, the vitreous half-life of 0.5-mg intravitreal ranibizumab is 2.88 days, shorter than the half-life of 1.25-mg intravitreal bevacizumab of 4.32 days. No ranibizumab was detected in the serum or the fellow uninjected eye; whereas small amounts of intravitreal bevacizumab have been detected in the serum and fellow uninjected eye.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2009
                October 2009
                15 July 2009
                : 223
                : 6
                : 383-389
                Affiliations
                aUniversity of Athens, 2nd Department of Ophthalmology, Attikon University Hospital, and bUniversity of Athens, 1st Department of Ophthalmology, G. Gennimatas Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Article
                228590 Ophthalmologica 2009;223:383–389
                10.1159/000228590
                19602910
                99ee90dd-f8d8-4991-b568-9f7078f7a8b2
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 24 April 2008
                : 03 July 2008
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 20, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Age-related macular degeneration,Fellow eye,Lucentis,Anti-VEGF,Choroidal neovascularization scar,VEGF,Ranibizumab

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