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      Spreading of Pain in Patients with Chronic Pain is Related to Pain Duration and Clinical Presentation and Weakly Associated with Outcomes of Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation: A Cohort Study from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP)

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The extent to which pain is distributed across the body (spreading of pain) differs largely among patients with chronic pain conditions and widespread pain has been linked to poor quality of life and work disability. A longer duration of pain is expected to be associated with more widespread pain, but studies are surprisingly scarce. Whether spreading of pain is associated with clinical presentation and treatment outcome in patients seen in interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation programs (IMMRPs) is unclear. The association between spreading of pain and (1) pain duration (2) clinical presentation (eg, pain intensity, pain-related cognitions, psychological distress, activity/participation aspects and quality of life) and (3) treatment outcome were examined.

          Methods

          Data from patients included in the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation were used (n=39,916). A subset of patients that participated in IMMRPs (n=14,666) was used to examine whether spreading of pain at baseline predicted treatment outcome. Spreading of pain was registered using 36 predefined anatomical areas which were summarized and divided into four categories: 1–6 regions with pain (20.6% of patients), 7–12 regions (26.8%), 13–18 regions (22.0%) and 19–36 regions (30.6%).

          Results

          More widespread pain was associated with a longer pain duration and a more severe clinical picture at baseline with the strongest associations emerging in relation to health and pain aspects (pain intensity, pain interference and pain duration). Widespread pain was associated with a poorer overall treatment outcome following IMMRPs at both posttreatment and at a 12-month follow-up, but effect sizes were small.

          Discussion

          Spreading of pain is an indicator of the duration and severity of chronic pain and to a limited extent to outcomes of IMMRP. Longer pain duration in those with more widespread pain supports the concept of early intervention as clinically important and implies a need to develop and improve rehabilitation for patients with chronic widespread pain.

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          Most cited references 88

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              A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                jpr
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                28 January 2021
                2021
                : 14
                : 173-187
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University , Linköping SE-58185, Sweden
                [2 ]Department of Neurosurgery and Pain Rehabilitation, Skåne University Hospital , Lund SE-22185, Sweden
                [3 ]Research Group Rehabilitation Medicine,Dept of Health Sciences, Lund University , Lund, Sweden
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University , Lund SE-22100, Sweden
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Björn Gerdle Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University , LinköpingSE-581 85, SwedenTel +46763927191 Email bjorn.gerdle@liu.se
                Article
                288638
                10.2147/JPR.S288638
                7850976
                33542650
                © 2021 Gerdle et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 9, References: 88, Pages: 15
                Categories
                Original Research

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