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      Targeting polarized phenotype of microglia via IL6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling to reduce NSCLC brain metastasis


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          Tumor-associated macrophages have emerged as crucial factors for metastases. Microglia are indispensable components of the brain microenvironment and play vital roles in brain metastasis (BM). However, the underlying mechanism of how activated microglia promote brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains elusive. Here, we purified cell lines with brain-metastatic tropism and employed a co-culture system to reveal their communication with microglia. By single-cell RNA-sequencing and transcriptome difference analysis, we identified IL6 as the key regulator in brain-metastatic cells (A549-F3) to induce anti-inflammatory microglia via JAK2/STAT3 signaling, which in turn promoted the colonization process in metastatic A549-F3 cells. In our clinical samples, patients with higher levels of IL6 in serum showed higher propensity for brain metastasis. Additionally, the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data revealed that NSCLC patients with a lower level of IL6 had a longer overall survival time compared to those with a higher level of IL6. Overall, our data indicate that the targeting of IL6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling in activated microglia may be a promising new approach for inhibiting brain metastasis in NSCLC patients.

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            EMT Transition States during Tumor Progression and Metastasis

            Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal features. In cancer, EMT is associated with tumor initiation, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that EMT is not a binary process, but occurs through distinct cellular states. Here, we review the recent studies that demonstrate the existence of these different EMT states in cancer and the mechanisms regulating their functions. We discuss the different functional characteristics, such as proliferation, propagation, plasticity, invasion, and metastasis associated with the distinct EMT states. We summarize the role of the transcriptional and epigenetic landscapes, gene regulatory network and their surrounding niche in controlling the transition through the different EMT states.
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              Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain.

              The molecular basis for breast cancer metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. Brain relapse typically occurs years after the removal of a breast tumour, suggesting that disseminated cancer cells must acquire specialized functions to take over this organ. Here we show that breast cancer metastasis to the brain involves mediators of extravasation through non-fenestrated capillaries, complemented by specific enhancers of blood-brain barrier crossing and brain colonization. We isolated cells that preferentially infiltrate the brain from patients with advanced disease. Gene expression analysis of these cells and of clinical samples, coupled with functional analysis, identified the cyclooxygenase COX2 (also known as PTGS2), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand HBEGF, and the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC5 as mediators of cancer cell passage through the blood-brain barrier. EGFR ligands and COX2 were previously linked to breast cancer infiltration of the lungs, but not the bones or liver, suggesting a sharing of these mediators in cerebral and pulmonary metastases. In contrast, ST6GALNAC5 specifically mediates brain metastasis. Normally restricted to the brain, the expression of ST6GALNAC5 in breast cancer cells enhances their adhesion to brain endothelial cells and their passage through the blood-brain barrier. This co-option of a brain sialyltransferase highlights the role of cell-surface glycosylation in organ-specific metastatic interactions.

                Author and article information

                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduct Target Ther
                Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                23 February 2022
                23 February 2022
                : 7
                : 52
                [1 ]GRID grid.33199.31, ISNI 0000 0004 0368 7223, Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, , Huazhong University of Science and Technology, ; Wuhan, 430030 Hubei Province China
                [2 ]GRID grid.33199.31, ISNI 0000 0004 0368 7223, Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, , Huazhong University of Science and Technology, ; Wuhan, 430030 Hubei Province China
                [3 ]GRID grid.10388.32, ISNI 0000 0001 2240 3300, Institute of Experimental Immunology, , University Clinic of Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, ; Bonn, Germany
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 8 April 2021
                : 29 December 2021
                : 31 December 2021
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China);
                Award ID: 81773360
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                lung cancer,metastasis,cns cancer,molecular medicine
                lung cancer, metastasis, cns cancer, molecular medicine


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