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      Correlation of serum hepcidin levels with disease progression in hepatitis B virus-related disease assessed by nanopore film based assay

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          Abstract

          Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection often develop into cirrhosis, and both are major risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, effective approaches for the monitoring of HBV-related disease progress are still in need. Increased iron storage has an important role in HBV-related diseases. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis whose expression changes are often indicative of abnormal iron metabolism. There are few reports of hepcidin levels in patients with HBV infections, and the available results are inconsistent. In this study, using a recently validated nanopore silica film based method, we measured serum hepcidin levels in 46 HBV-related patients and 20 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups: chronic hepatitis B without cirrhosis; HBV-related cirrhosis; and HBV-related cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma. Compared to healthy controls, the mean serum hepcidin level was significantly higher in CHB patients without cirrhosis, and in those with hepatocellular carcinoma, but not in those with cirrhosis. Iron-loading, viral infection and liver dysfunction are determined to be the major regulators of hepcidin in these patients. These observations suggest correlations between serum hepcidin and progression of chronic HBV infection, and may shed a new light on the development of biomarkers for HBV-related disease surveillance.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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            Inflammation and liver cancer: new molecular links .

            A connection between inflammation and cancer has been long suspected. Epidemiological studies have established that many tumors occur in association with chronic infectious diseases, and it is also known that persistent inflammation in the absence of infections increases the risk and accelerates the development of cancer. One clear example of inflammation-related cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is a type tumor that slowly unfolds on a background of chronic inflammation mainly triggered by exposure to infectious agents (hepatotropic viruses) or to toxic compounds (ethanol). The molecular links that connect inflammation and cancer are not completely known, but evidences gathered over the past few years are beginning to define the precise mechanisms. In this article we review the most compelling evidences on the role of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and STAT3, cytokines like IL-6 and IL-1alpha, ligands of the EGF receptor and other inflammatory mediators in cancer development, with special emphasis in HCC. The molecular dissection of the pathways connecting the inflammatory reaction and neoplasia will pave the way for better therapies to treat cancers.
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              Viral infection and iron metabolism.

              Fundamental cellular operations, including DNA synthesis and the generation of ATP, require iron. Viruses hijack cells in order to replicate, and efficient replication needs an iron-replete host. Some viruses selectively infect iron-acquiring cells by binding to transferrin receptor 1 during cell entry. Other viruses alter the expression of proteins involved in iron homeostasis, such as HFE and hepcidin. In HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus infections, iron overload is associated with poor prognosis and could be partly caused by the viruses themselves. Understanding how iron metabolism and viral infection interact might suggest new methods to control disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                03 October 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, Beijing Key Laboratory of Ambient Particles Health Effects and Prevention Techniques, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology , Beijing, China
                [2 ]The First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University , Changchun, Jilin Province, China
                [3 ]Iron Metabolism Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland , 4006 Australia
                [4 ]Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Hospital Research Institute , Houston, TX, USA
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep34252
                10.1038/srep34252
                5046114
                27694815
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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