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      Dephasing of qubits by transverse low-frequency noise

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          Abstract

          We analyze the dissipative dynamics of a two-level quantum system subject to low-frequency, e.g. 1/f noise, motivated by recent experiments with superconducting quantum circuits. We show that the effect of transverse linear coupling of the system to low-frequency noise is equivalent to that of quadratic longitudinal coupling. We further find the decay law of quantum coherent oscillations under the influence of both low- and high-frequency fluctuations, in particular, for the case of comparable rates of relaxation and pure dephasing.

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          Coherent control of macroscopic quantum states in a single-Cooper-pair box

          A small superconducting electrode (a single-Cooper-pair box) connected to a reservoir via a Josephson junction constitutes an artificial two-level system, in which two charge states that differ by 2e are coupled by tunneling of Cooper pairs. Despite its macroscopic nature involving a large number of electrons, the two-level system shows coherent superposition of the two charge states, and has been suggested as a candidate for a qubit, i.e. a basic component of a quantum computer. Here we report on time-domain observation of the coherent quantum-state evolution in the two-level system by applying a short voltage pulse that modifies the energies of the two levels nonadiabatically to control the coherent evolution. The resulting state was probed by a tunneling current through an additional probe junction. Our results demonstrate coherent operation and measurement of a quantum state of a single two-level system, i.e. a qubit, in a solid-state electronic device.
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            Mesoscopic quantum transport: Resonant tunneling in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction

            Coulomb blockade phenomena and quantum fluctuations are studied in mesoscopic metallic tunnel junctions with high charging energies. If the resistance of the barriers is large compared to the quantum resistance, transport can be described by sequential tunneling. Here we study the influence of quantum fluctuations. They are important when the resistance is small or the temperature very low. A real-time approach is developed which allows the diagrammatic classification of ``inelastic resonant tunneling'' processes where different electrons tunnel coherently back and forth between the leads and the metallic island. With the help of a nonperturbative resummation technique we evaluate the spectral density which describes the charge excitations of the system. From it physical quantities of interest like current and average charge can be deduced. Our main conclusions are: An energy renormalization leads to a logarithmic temperature dependence of the renormalized system parameters. A finite lifetime broadening can change the classical picture drastically. It gives rise to a strong flattening of the Coulomb oscillations for low resistances, but in the Coulomb blockade regime inelastic electron cotunneling persists. The temperature where these effects are important are accessible in experiments.
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              Charge echo in a Cooper-pair box

              A spin-echo-type technique is applied to an artificial two-level system that utilizes charge degree of freedom in a small superconducting electrode. Gate-voltage pulses are used to produce the necessary pulse sequence in order to eliminate the inhomogeneity effect in the time-ensemble measurement and to obtain refocused echo signals. Comparison of the decay time of the observed echo signal with estimated decoherence time suggests that low-frequency energy-level fluctuations due to the 1/f charge noise dominate the dephasing in the system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                22 December 2003
                Article
                10.1134/1.1637702
                cond-mat/0312585
                Custom metadata
                JETP Lett. 78, 497 (2003)
                cond-mat.mes-hall

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