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      Application of polyglycolic acid sheets and basic fibroblast growth factor to prevent esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection in pigs


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          Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been the first-line treatment for early-stage esophageal cancer. However, it often causes postoperative stricture in cases requiring wide dissection. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) reportedly has anti-scarring effects during cutaneous wound healing. We hypothesized that suppressing myofibroblast activation will prevent stricture after esophageal ESD.


          We resected a complete porcine esophagus circumference section by ESD. To investigate the preventive effect of bFGF on esophageal stricture formation after ESD, we endoscopically applied bFGF-soaked poly-glycolic acid (PGA) sheets onto the wound bed after ESD and fixed them by spraying fibrin glue (PGA + bFGF group), PGA sheets alone onto the wound bed and fixed them by spraying fibrin glue (PGA group), or nothing (control group). After removing the esophagus on day 22, we evaluated the mucosal constriction rate.


          Compared with those in the control group, esophageal stricture was significantly reduced in the PGA + bFGF group, and the areas stained with α-SMA and calponin-1 antibodies were significantly inhibited in the PGA + bFGF and PGA groups. The thickness of the fibrous layer in the PGA + bFGF group was uniform compared to that of the other groups. Thus, PGA + bFGF inhibited the development of unregulated fibroblasts in the acute phase, leading to uniform wound healing.


          Stenosis after esophageal ESD is related to fibrosis in the acute phase. Administration of PGA and bFGF suppresses myofibroblast activation in the acute phase, thereby preventing esophageal constriction in pigs.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00535-023-02032-4.

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          Most cited references59

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Cardiac Fibrosis: The Fibroblast Awakens.

            Myocardial fibrosis is a significant global health problem associated with nearly all forms of heart disease. Cardiac fibroblasts comprise an essential cell type in the heart that is responsible for the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix; however, upon injury, these cells transform to a myofibroblast phenotype and contribute to cardiac fibrosis. This remodeling involves pathological changes that include chamber dilation, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis, and ultimately leads to the progression to heart failure. Despite the critical importance of fibrosis in cardiovascular disease, our limited understanding of the cardiac fibroblast impedes the development of potential therapies that effectively target this cell type and its pathological contribution to disease progression. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the origins and roles of fibroblasts, mediators and signaling pathways known to influence fibroblast function after myocardial injury, as well as novel therapeutic strategies under investigation to attenuate cardiac fibrosis.
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              Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.

              Wound healing is an evolutionarily conserved, complex, multicellular process that, in skin, aims at barrier restoration. This process involves the coordinated efforts of several cell types including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, and platelets. The migration, infiltration, proliferation, and differentiation of these cells will culminate in an inflammatory response, the formation of new tissue and ultimately wound closure. This complex process is executed and regulated by an equally complex signaling network involving numerous growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Of particular importance is the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukin (IL) family, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha family. Currently, patients are treated by three growth factors: PDGF-BB, bFGF, and GM-CSF. Only PDGF-BB has successfully completed randomized clinical trials in the Unites States. With gene therapy now in clinical trial and the discovery of biodegradable polymers, fibrin mesh, and human collagen serving as potential delivery systems other growth factors may soon be available to patients. This review will focus on the specific roles of these growth factors and cytokines during the wound healing process.

                Author and article information

                J Gastroenterol
                J Gastroenterol
                Journal of Gastroenterology
                Springer Nature Singapore (Singapore )
                27 August 2023
                27 August 2023
                : 58
                : 11
                : 1094-1104
                [1 ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, ( https://ror.org/02e16g702) Kita-14-Jo Nishi-5-Chome Kita-Ku Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8648 Japan
                [2 ]Division of Endoscopy, Hokkaido University Hospital, ( https://ror.org/0419drx70) Sapporo, Japan
                [3 ]Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, ( https://ror.org/02e16g702) Sapporo, Japan
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 6 July 2023
                : 5 August 2023
                Original Article—Alimentary Tract
                Custom metadata
                © Japanese Society of Gastroenterology 2023

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology
                basic fibroblast growth factor,polyglycolic acid,esophageal stricture,endoscopic submucosal dissection


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