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      Probiotic functional foods: Survival of probiotics during processing and storage

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      Journal of Functional Foods

      Elsevier BV

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          Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health.

          Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention.
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            Recent advances in microencapsulation of probiotics for industrial applications and targeted delivery

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              Protectants used in the cryopreservation of microorganisms.

              The cryoprotective additives (CPAs) used in the frozen storage of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa) include a variety of simple and more complex chemical compounds, but only a few of them have been used widely and with satisfactory results: these include dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), glycerol, blood serum or serum albumin, skimmed milk, peptone, yeast extract, saccharose, glucose, methanol, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sorbitol, and malt extract. Pairwise comparisons of the cryoprotective activity of the more common CPAs used in cryomicrobiology, based on published experimental reports, indicate that the most successful CPAs have been Me2SO, methanol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and serum or serum albumin, while glycerol, polyethylene glycol, PVP, and sucrose are less successful, and other sugars, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch, sorbitol, and milk are the least effective. However, diols (as well as some other CPAs) are toxic for many microbes. Me2SO might be regarded as the most universally useful CPA, although certain other CPAs can sometimes yield better recoveries with particular organisms. The best CPA, or combination of CPAs, and the optimum concentration for a particular cryosensitive microorganism has to be determined empirically. This review aims to provide a summary of the main experimental findings with a wide range of additives and organisms. A brief discussion of mechanisms of CPA action is also included.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Functional Foods
                Journal of Functional Foods
                Elsevier BV
                17564646
                July 2014
                July 2014
                : 9
                :
                : 225-241
                Article
                10.1016/j.jff.2014.04.030
                9a3633b9-6cde-421d-bf8d-f312529d568b
                © 2014

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