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      Home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with built-in software in stable hypercapnic COPD: a short-term prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

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          The benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with hypercapnic COPD are controversial. It is presumed that methodology and appropriate use of NIV ventilator might be crucial for the outcomes. With the new built-in software, the performance of NIV can be monitored at home, which can guarantee the compliance and appropriate use. This study investigated effects of home use of NIV in hypercapnia in COPD patients using the NIV ventilator with built-in software for monitoring.


          The current multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled trial enrolled patients with stable GOLD stages III and IV hypercapnic COPD. Patients were randomly assigned via a computer-generated randomization sequence, with a block size of four patients, to continue optimized treatment (control group) or to receive additional NPPV (intervention group) for 3 months. The primary outcome was arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO 2). Data were derived from built-in software and analyzed every 4 weeks. Analysis was carried out with the intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT02499718.


          Patients were recruited from 20 respiratory units in China from October 1, 2015, and recruitment was terminated with a record of the vital statistics on May 31, 2016. A total of 115 patients were randomly assigned to the NPPV group (n=57) or the control group (n=58). Patients complied well with NPPV therapy (mean [± standard deviation] day use 5.6±1.4 h). The mean estimation of leaks was 37.99±13.71 L/min. The changes in PaCO 2 (−10.41±0.97 vs −4.32±0.68 mmHg, P=0.03) and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) (38.2% vs 18.2%, P=0.02) were statistically significant in the NPPV group versus the control group. COPD assessment test (CAT) showed a positive trend ( P=0.06) in favor of the NPPV group. Pulmonary function and dyspnea were not different between groups.


          Ventilators equipped with built-in software provided methodology for monitoring NIV use at home, which could facilitate the improvement of compliance and quality control of NIV use. It was shown that three months use of NIV at home could reduce the PaCO 2 and improve exercise tolerance (6MWD) in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Prospective randomized open blinded end-point (PROBE) study. A novel design for intervention trials. Prospective Randomized Open Blinded End-Point.

          A novel design for intervention studies is presented, the so called PROBE study (Prospective Randomized Open, Blinded End-point). This design is compared to the classical double-blind design. Among the advantages of the PROBE design are lower cost and greater similarity to standard clinical practice, which should make the results more easily applicable in routine medical care. Since end-points are evaluated by a blinded end-point committee it is obvious that there should be no difference between the two types of trials in this regard.
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            Nocturnal non-invasive nasal ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: a randomised controlled trial.

            Sleep hypoventilation has been proposed as a cause of progressive hypercapnic respiratory failure and death in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A study was undertaken to determine the effects of nocturnal non-invasive bi-level pressure support ventilation (NIV) on survival, lung function and quality of life in patients with severe hypercapnic COPD. A multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of NIV plus long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) versus LTOT alone was performed in four Australian University Hospital sleep/respiratory medicine departments in patients with severe stable smoking-related COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) 46 mm Hg and on LTOT for at least 3 months) and age 20/h) or morbid obesity (body mass index >40) were excluded. Outcome measures were survival, spirometry, arterial blood gases, polysomnography, general and disease-specific quality of life and mood. 144 patients were randomised (72 to NIV + LTOT and 72 to LTOT alone). NIV improved sleep quality and sleep-related hypercapnia acutely, and patients complied well with therapy (mean (SD) nightly use 4.5 (3.2) h). Compared with LTOT alone, NIV (mean follow-up 2.21 years, range 0.01-5.59) showed an improvement in survival with the adjusted but not the unadjusted Cox model (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.99, p = 0.045; unadjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.25, p = NS). FEV1.0 and PaCO2 measured at 6 and 12 months were not different between groups. Patients assigned to NIV + LTOT had reduced general and mental health and vigour. Nocturnal NIV in stable oxygen-dependent patients with hypercapnic COPD may improve survival, but this appears to be at the cost of worsening quality of life. ACTRN12605000205639.
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              Long-term controlled trial of nocturnal nasal positive pressure ventilation in patients with severe COPD.

              To determine the 1-year efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) added to long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) in patients with stable severe COPD. PATIENT SELECTION AND METHODS: We prospectively randomized 52 patients with severe COPD (FEV(1) < 45%) to either NPPV plus "standard care" (96% patients with LTOT) or to standard care alone (93% patients with LTOT). The outcomes measured included the following: rate of acute COPD exacerbations; hospital admissions; intubations; and mortality at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The patients were also evaluated at 3 months and 6 months for dyspnea using the Medical Research Council and Borg scales, gas exchange, hematocrit, pulmonary function, cardiac function with echocardiogram, and neuropsychological performance. One-year survival was similar in both groups (78%). The number of acute exacerbations was similar at all time points in patients receiving NPPV, compared with control subjects. The number of hospital admissions was decreased at 3 months in the NPPV group (5% vs 15% of patients, p < 0.05), but this difference was not seen at 6 months (18% vs 19%, respectively). The only beneficial differences were observed in the Borg dyspnea rating, which dropped from 6 to 5 (p < 0.039), and in one of the neuropsychological tests (psychomotor coordination) for the NPPV group at 6 months. Our study indicates that over 1 year, NPPV does not affect the natural course of the disease and is of marginal benefit in outpatients with severe COPD who are in stable condition.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                27 April 2017
                : 12
                : 1279-1286
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun-Yat Sen University
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine of Guangzhou Pharmaceutical University
                [4 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou
                [5 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rongchang Chen, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 151 Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou 510120, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 20 8306 2882, Email chenrc@

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2017 Zhou et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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