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      Longitudinal Changes of Handgrip, Knee Extensor Muscle Strength, and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score in Cardiac Patients During Phase II Cardiac Rehabilitation

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          Abstract

          Handgrip strength (HS) and knee extensor muscle strength (KEMS) showed a negative correlation with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score at one month following cardiac surgery. We performed a longitudinal study to examine changes in HS/KEMS and DASH score during phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients after cardiac surgery. We measured and assessed HS, KEMS, and DASH score in 41 consecutive patients at one and three months following cardiac surgery and examined the relation between these factors at three months following cardiac surgery. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the results. Finally, 26 patients (63.2 years, 73.1% male) were analyzed. There were significant differences from one month to three months following cardiac surgery in HS (26.78 ± 8.26 to 31.35 ± 9.41 kgf, p < 0.001), KEMS (1.53 ± 0.42 to 1.72 ± 0.46 Nm/kg, p = 0.001), and DASH score (14.76 ± 12.58 to 7.62 ± 9.29, p < 0.001). DASH score correlated negatively with HS (r = −0.41, p = 0.01) but not with KEMS (r = −0.32, p = 0.09) after three months of phase II CR. Although HS, KEMS, and DASH scores changed significantly from one to three months following cardiac surgery during phase II CR, only HS correlated negatively with DASH score at three months following cardiac surgery.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing.

          Exercise capacity is known to be an important prognostic factor in patients with cardiovascular disease, but it is uncertain whether it predicts mortality equally well among healthy persons. There is also uncertainty regarding the predictive power of exercise capacity relative to other clinical and exercise-test variables. We studied a total of 6213 consecutive men referred for treadmill exercise testing for clinical reasons during a mean (+/-SD) of 6.2+/-3.7 years of follow-up. Subjects were classified into two groups: 3679 had an abnormal exercise-test result or a history of cardiovascular disease, or both, and 2534 had a normal exercise-test result and no history of cardiovascular disease. Overall mortality was the end point. There were a total of 1256 deaths during the follow-up period, resulting in an average annual mortality of 2.6 percent. Men who died were older than those who survived and had a lower maximal heart rate, lower maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lower exercise capacity. After adjustment for age, the peak exercise capacity measured in metabolic equivalents (MET) was the strongest predictor of the risk of death among both normal subjects and those with cardiovascular disease. Absolute peak exercise capacity was a stronger predictor of the risk of death than the percentage of the age-predicted value achieved, and there was no interaction between the use or nonuse of beta-blockade and the predictive power of exercise capacity. Each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity conferred a 12 percent improvement in survival. Exercise capacity is a more powerful predictor of mortality among men than other established risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
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            The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) outcome questionnaire: longitudinal construct validity and measuring self-rated health change after surgery

            Background The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire is a self-administered region-specific outcome instrument developed as a measure of self-rated upper-extremity disability and symptoms. The DASH consists mainly of a 30-item disability/symptom scale, scored 0 (no disability) to 100. The main purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal construct validity of the DASH among patients undergoing surgery. The second purpose was to quantify self-rated treatment effectiveness after surgery. Methods The longitudinal construct validity of the DASH was evaluated in 109 patients having surgical treatment for a variety of upper-extremity conditions, by assessing preoperative-to-postoperative (6–21 months) change in DASH score and calculating the effect size and standardized response mean. The magnitude of score change was also analyzed in relation to patients' responses to an item regarding self-perceived change in the status of the arm after surgery. Performance of the DASH as a measure of treatment effectiveness was assessed after surgery for subacromial impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome by calculating the effect size and standardized response mean. Results Among the 109 patients, the mean (SD) DASH score preoperatively was 35 (22) and postoperatively 24 (23) and the mean score change was 15 (13). The effect size was 0.7 and the standardized response mean 1.2. The mean change (95% confidence interval) in DASH score for the patients reporting the status of the arm as "much better" or "much worse" after surgery was 19 (15–23) and for those reporting it as "somewhat better" or "somewhat worse" was 10 (7–14) (p = 0.01). In measuring effectiveness of arthroscopic acromioplasty the effect size was 0.9 and standardized response mean 0.5; for carpal tunnel surgery the effect size was 0.7 and standardized response mean 1.0. Conclusion The DASH can detect and differentiate small and large changes of disability over time after surgery in patients with upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. A 10-point difference in mean DASH score may be considered as a minimal important change. The DASH can show treatment effectiveness after surgery for subacromial impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome. The effect size and standardized response mean may yield substantially differing results.
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              Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease.

              Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the single most common cause of death globally. However, with falling CHD mortality rates, an increasing number of people live with CHD and may need support to manage their symptoms and prognosis. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) aims to improve the health and outcomes of people with CHD. This is an update of a Cochrane systematic review previously published in 2011.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diseases
                Diseases
                diseases
                Diseases
                MDPI
                2079-9721
                26 March 2019
                March 2019
                : 7
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 654-0142, Japan; izawapk@ 123456harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp
                [2 ]Cardiovascular stroke Renal Project (CRP), Kobe 654-0142, Japan; kasahara.y@ 123456marianna-u.ac.jp (Y.K.); hiraki7@ 123456marianna-u.ac.jp (K.H.); hirano@ 123456tks.bunri-u.ac.jp (Y.H.); koka@ 123456waseda.jp (K.O.)
                [3 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine Yokohama-city Seibu Hospital, Yokohama 241-0811, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital, Kawasaki 216-8511, Japan
                [5 ]Department of Physical Therapy, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
                [6 ]Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama 359-1192, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Rehawatanabe@ 123456marianna-u.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-44-977-8111
                Article
                diseases-07-00032
                10.3390/diseases7010032
                6473922
                30917524
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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