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      Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares entre 7 y 14 años en Cartagena, Colombia, 2009 Translated title: Cardiovascular risk factors among 7-and 14-year old schoolchildren in Cartagena, Colombia, 2009

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          Objetivo Identificar antecedentes familiares, dislipidemias, hiperglucemia, escasa actividad física y sobrepeso u obesidad como factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños entre 7 y 14 años de Cartagena, 2009. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 173 niños de Cartagena, Colombia. Se determinaron los parámetros bioquímicos en suero mediante técnicas espectrofotométricas. Los hábitos fueron indagados mediante entrevista y las alteraciones de peso fueron establecidas utilizando el índice de masa corporal. Resultados La muestra quedó conformada por 87 niñas y 86 niños con edad promedio de 9,9 años (IC95 % 9,6-10,3). El 75,1 % (IC95 % 68,7-81.5) presentaron antecedentes familiares; 2,3 % (IC95 % 0,1-4,5) tuvieron sobrepeso y 1,7 % (IC95 % 0,0-3,6) obesidad. Más de la mitad de los niños presentaron niveles elevados de colesterol total (53,2 %; IC95 % 45,8-60,6) y LDL (57,2 %; IC95 % 49,8-64,6). El colesterol no HDL se halló incrementado en el 46,8 % (IC95 % 39,4-54,2). Las niñas presentaron mayor concentración de triglicéridos (94,1 mg/dL; IC95 % 93,0-95,2 mg/dL) que los niños (81,7 mg/dL; IC95 % 80,6-82,8 mg/dL) con diferencia significativa (p=0,005) y también presentaron con mayor frecuencia baja actividad física (niñas: 83,8 %; IC95 % 73,5-94,5 %; varones: 44,2 %; IC95 % 45,4-66,6; p=0,0001). Conclusión Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular presentes en esta población, inclusive en ausencia de obesidad, muestran la necesidad de implementar programas que los identifiquen e intervengan de manera oportuna para disminuir su impacto en la calidad de vida futura.

          Translated abstract

          Objective Identifying family history, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, low physical activity and being overweight or suffering from obesity as cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 7 to 14 years in Cartagena, 2009. Materials and Methods A descriptive study of 173 children from Cartagena, Colombia, was designed. Biochemical serum parameters were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Habits were investigated through interviews and altered body weight was established using the body mass index (BMI). Results The sample consisted of 87 girls and 86 boys, and mean age was 9.9 years (9.6-10.3, 95 % CI). 75.1% (68.7-81.5, 95 % CI) had a family history of being overweight; 2.3 % (0.1-4.5, 95 % CI) were overweight and 1.7 % (0.0-3.6 95 %CI) were obese. More than half of the children had hightotal cholesterol levels (53.2 %; 45.8-60.695 %CI) and LDL (57.2 %; 49.8-64.6 95 % CI). Non-HDL cholesterol was found to be increased by 46.8 % (39.4-54.2 95 % CI). There was a significant difference between genders for triglyceridemia (females: 94.1 mg/dL; 87.0-101.2 mg/dL 95 % CI; males: 81.7 mg/dL; 75.0-88.5 mg/dL 95 % CI; p=0.005) and low physical activity (females: 83.8 %; 73.5-94.5 % 95 % CI; males: 44.2 %; 45.4-66.6 % 95 % CI; p=0,0001). Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors in these schoolchildren, even in those who were not obese, justify the need for the early detection of these factors as well as their strict controlto reduce their impact on people's future quality of life.

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          Most cited references 70

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              Validation studies of height- and weight-based indexes of body fatness in children and adolescents have examined only small samples of school-age children. The objective was to validate the performance of age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) compared with the Rohrer index (RI) and weight-for-height in screening for both underweight and overweight in children aged 2-19 y. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 11096) and a pooled data set from 3 studies that used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 920) were examined. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of these 3 indexes in classifying both underweight and overweight. Percentage body fat and total fat mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous fat was assessed on the basis of the average of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. For children aged 2-19 y, BMI-for-age was significantly better than were weight-for-height and RI-for-age in detecting overweight when average skinfold thicknesses were used as the standard, but no differences were found in detecting underweight. When percentage body fat or total fat mass was used as the standard, BMI-for-age was significantly better than was RI-for-age in detecting overweight in children aged 3-19 y. No differences were found between BMI-for-age and weight-for-height in detecting overweight or underweight. For children and adolescents aged 2-19 y, the performance of BMI-for-age is better than that of RI-for-age in predicting underweight and overweight but is similar to that of weight-for-height.

                Author and article information

                Revista de Salud Pública
                Rev. salud pública
                Instituto de Salud Publica, Facultad de Medicina - Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá, DF, Colombia )
                April 2011
                : 13
                : 2
                : 196-206
                orgnameUniversidad de San Buenaventura orgdiv1Seccional Cartagena
                S0124-00642011000200002 S0124-0064(11)01300202

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 11
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