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      A proline racemase based PCR for identification of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.

      PLoS ONE

      genetics, Amino Acid Isomerases, Animals, Base Sequence, Cattle, blood, parasitology, Cattle Diseases, Humans, Limit of Detection, Mice, Molecular Sequence Data, Polymerase Chain Reaction, methods, Species Specificity, Trypanosoma vivax, enzymology, isolation & purification

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          Abstract

          A study was conducted to develop a Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) specific PCR based on the T. vivax proline racemase (TvPRAC) gene. Forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. To assess its specificity, TvPRAC PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: T. vivax from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela, T. congolense Savannah type, T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. equiperdum, T. theileri, Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and from bovine, goat, mouse, camel and human blood. The analytical sensitivity of the TvPRAC PCR was compared with that of the ITS-1 PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP on a dilution series of T. vivax DNA in water. The diagnostic performance of the three PCRs was compared on 411 Ethiopian bovine blood specimens collected in a former study. TvPRAC PCR proved to be fully specific for T. vivax, irrespective of its geographical origin. Its analytical sensitivity was lower than that of ITS-1 PCR. On these bovine specimens, TvPRAC PCR detected 8.3% T. vivax infections while ITS-1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP detected respectively 22.6 and 6.1% T. vivax infections. The study demonstrates that a proline racemase based PCR could be used, preferably in combination with ITS-1 PCR, as a species-specific diagnostic test for T. vivax infections worldwide.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Understanding interobserver agreement: the kappa statistic.

          Items such as physical exam findings, radiographic interpretations, or other diagnostic tests often rely on some degree of subjective interpretation by observers. Studies that measure the agreement between two or more observers should include a statistic that takes into account the fact that observers will sometimes agree or disagree simply by chance. The kappa statistic (or kappa coefficient) is the most commonly used statistic for this purpose. A kappa of 1 indicates perfect agreement, whereas a kappa of 0 indicates agreement equivalent to chance. A limitation of kappa is that it is affected by the prevalence of the finding under observation. Methods to overcome this limitation have been described.
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            Sensitive detection of trypanosomes in tsetse flies by DNA amplification.

            African trypanosome species were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by targeting repetitive DNA for amplification. Using oligonucleotide primers designed to anneal specifically to the satellite DNA monomer of each species/subgroup, we were able to accurately identify Trypanosoma simiae, three subgroups of T. congolense, T. brucei and T. vivax. The assay was sensitive and specific, detecting one trypanosome unequivocally and showing no reaction with non-target trypanosome DNA or a huge excess of host DNA. The assay was used to identify developmental stage trypanosomes in the tsetse fly. The use of radioisotopes was not necessary and mixed infections could be detected easily by incorporating more than one set of primers in a single reaction. The use of crude preparations of template made the process very rapid. The methodology should be suitable for large-scale epidemiological studies.
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              Is Open Access

              The history of African trypanosomiasis

              The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                24416292
                3885604
                10.1371/journal.pone.0084819

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