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      Demographically adjusted norms for the Trail Making Test in native Spanish speakers: Results from the neuropsychological norms for the US-Mexico border region in Spanish (NP-NUMBRS) project

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          An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples)

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            The Proof and Measurement of Association between Two Things

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              The Trail Making Test.

              The Trail Making Test (TMT) is used as an indicator of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and executive function. The aim of this study was to examine the TMT relationships with several neuropsychological measures and to provide normative data in community-dwelling participants of 55 years and older. A population-based Spanish-speaking sample of 2,564 participants was used. The TMT, Symbol Digit Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, Digit Span Test, Verbal Fluency tests, and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability tapping subtest were administered. Exploratory factor analyses and regression lineal models were used. Normative data for the TMT scores were obtained. A total of 1,923 participants (76.3%) participated, 52.4% were women, and the mean age was 66.5 years (Digit Span = 8.0). The Symbol Digit Test, MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability tapping subtest, Stroop Color-Word Test, and Digit Span Test scores were associated in the performance of most TMT scores, but the contribution of each measure was different depending on the TMT score. Normative tables according to significant factors such as age, education level, and sex were created. Measures of visual scanning, graphomotor speed, and visuomotor processing speed were more related to the performance of the TMT-A score, while working memory and inhibition control were mainly associated with the TMT-B and derived TMT scores.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Clinical Neuropsychologist
                The Clinical Neuropsychologist
                Informa UK Limited
                1385-4046
                1744-4144
                February 17 2021
                September 27 2020
                February 17 2021
                : 35
                : 2
                : 308-323
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hispanic Neuropsychiatric Center of Excellence—Cultural Neuropsychology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
                [3 ]San Diego State University/University of California San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego, CA, USA
                [4 ]Department of Psychology and Latin American Latino Studies Institute, Fordham University, The Bronx, NY, USA
                [5 ]Department of Neurology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
                Article
                10.1080/13854046.2020.1800099
                9a49e6dc-9458-4d5b-b499-553b0cdee7b3
                © 2021

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