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      Complexity of dopamine metabolism

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          Abstract

          Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability.

          In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD.

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          Most cited references 184

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          Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors.

          Pluripotency pertains to the cells of early embryos that can generate all of the tissues in the organism. Embryonic stem cells are embryo-derived cell lines that retain pluripotency and represent invaluable tools for research into the mechanisms of tissue formation. Recently, murine fibroblasts have been reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by ectopic expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc) to yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Using these same factors, we have derived iPS cells from fetal, neonatal and adult human primary cells, including dermal fibroblasts isolated from a skin biopsy of a healthy research subject. Human iPS cells resemble embryonic stem cells in morphology and gene expression and in the capacity to form teratomas in immune-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that defined factors can reprogramme human cells to pluripotency, and establish a method whereby patient-specific cells might be established in culture.
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            Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor.

            A single cell clonal line which responds reversibly to nerve growth factor (NGF) has been established from a transplantable rat adrenal pheochromocytoma. This line, designated PC12, has a homogeneous and near-diploid chromosome number of 40. By 1 week's exposure to NGF, PC12 cells cease to multiply and begin to extend branching varicose processes similar to those produced by sympathetic neurons in primary cell culture. By several weeks of exposure to NGF, the PC12 processes reach 500-1000 mum in length. Removal of NGF is followed by degeneration of processes within 24 hr and by resumption of cell multiplication within 72 hr. PC12 cells grown with or without NGF contain dense core chromaffin-like granules up to 350 nm in diameter. The NGF-treated cells also contain small vesicles which accumulate in process varicosities and endings. PC12 cells synthesize and store the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. The levels (per mg of protein) of catecholamines and of the their synthetic enzymes in PC12 cells are comparable to or higher than those found in rat adrenals. NGF-treatment of PC12 cells results in no change in the levels of catecholamines or of their synthetic enzymes when expressed on a per cell basis, but does result in a 4- to 6-fold decrease in levels when expressed on a per mg of protein basis. PC12 cells do not synthesize epinephrine and cannot be induced to do so by treatment with dexamethasone. The PC12 cell line should be a useful model system for neurobiological and neurochemical studies.
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              Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other radicals are involved in a variety of biological phenomena, such as mutation, carcinogenesis, degenerative and other diseases, inflammation, aging, and development. ROS are well recognized for playing a dual role as deleterious and beneficial species. The objectives of this review are to describe oxidative stress phenomena, terminology, definitions, and basic chemical characteristics of the species involved; examine the biological targets susceptible to oxidation and the defense mechanisms of the organism against these reactive metabolites; and analyze methodologies, including immunohistochemical markers, used in toxicological pathology in the visualization of oxidative stress phenomena. Direct detection of ROS and other free radicals is difficult, because these molecules are short-lived and highly reactive in a nonspecific manner. Ongoing oxidative damage is, thus, generally analyzed by measurement of secondary products including derivatives of amino acids, nuclei acids, and lipid peroxidation. Attention has been focused on electrochemical methods based on voltammetry measurements for evaluating the total reducing power of biological fluids and tissues. This approach can function as a tool to assess the antioxidant-reducing profile of a biological site and follow changes in pathological situations. This review thus includes different topics essential for understanding oxidative stress phenomena and provides tools for those intending to conduct study and research in this field.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Commun Signal
                Cell Commun. Signal
                Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS
                BioMed Central
                1478-811X
                2013
                17 May 2013
                : 11
                : 34
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, 7, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-Belval, Luxembourg
                Article
                1478-811X-11-34
                10.1186/1478-811X-11-34
                3693914
                23683503
                Copyright ©2013 Meiser et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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