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      Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against ischemic/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury through miR-144/Nrf2/ARE pathway

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          Abstract

          Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), a saponin extracted from Panax ginseng, has been well documented to be effective against ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) neuronal injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we investigated the roles of Nrf2 and miR-144 in the protective effects of Rg1 against I/R-induced neuronal injury. In OGD/R-treated PC12 cells, Rg1 (0.01-1 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated the cell injury accompanied by prolonging nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, enhancing the transcriptional activity of Nrf2, as well as promoting the expression of ARE-target genes. The activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway by Rg1 was independent of disassociation with Keap1, but resulted from post-translational regulations. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished all the protective changes of Rg1 in OGD/R-treated PC12 cells. Furthermore, Rg1 treatment significantly decreased the expression of miR-144, which downregulated Nrf2 production by targeting its 3'-untranlated region after OGD/R. Knockdown of Nrf2 had no effect on the expression of miR-144, suggesting that miR-144 was an upstream regulator of Nrf2. We revealed that there was a direct binding between Nrf2 and miR-144 in PC12 cells. Application of anti-miR-144 occluded the activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway by Rg1 in OGD/R-treated PC12 cells. In tMCAO rats, administration of Rg1 (20 mg/kg) significantly alleviated ischemic injury, and activated Nrf2/ARE pathway. The protective effects of Rg1 were abolished by injecting of AAV-HIF-miR-144-shRNA into the predicted ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Rg1 alleviates oxidative stress after I/R through inhibiting miR-144 activity and subsequently promoting the Nrf2/ARE pathway at the post-translational level.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Nrf2-mediated induction of p62 controls Toll-like receptor-4-driven aggresome-like induced structure formation and autophagic degradation.

          Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in several innate immune responses by regulating autophagy, but little is known about how TLR signaling controls autophagy. Here we demonstrate that p62/SQSTM1 is required for TLR4-mediated autophagy, which we show as selective autophagy of aggresome-like induced structures (ALIS). Treatment with LPS or Escherichia coli induced LC3(+) dot-like structures, and their assembly, but not lysosomal degradation, occurred independently of classic autophagic machinery. Microscopic and ultrastructural analyses showed that p62 is a component of the induced LC3(+) dots and these TLR4-induced p62(+) structures resemble ALIS. The levels of p62 mRNA and protein were increased in TLR4-activated cells and knockdown of p62 suppressed the ALIS formation and LC3-II conversion. The accumulation of p62 and ALIS required activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species-p38 axis-dependent TLR4/MyD88 signaling, suggesting a link between innate immune and oxidative-stress responses. These findings indicate that TLR4-driven induction of p62 plays an essential role in the formation and the autophagic degradation of ALIS, which might be critical for regulating host defense.
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            A small-molecule-inducible Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response provides effective prophylaxis against cerebral ischemia in vivo.

            The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) coordinates expression of genes required for free radical scavenging, detoxification of xenobiotics, and maintenance of redox potential. Previously, activation of this pleiotropic response was neuroprotective in cell culture models that simulate components of stroke damage. However, the role of Nrf2 in limiting stroke damage in vivo remained unclear. We report that Nrf2 activation protects the brain from cerebral ischemia in vivo. Acute (1-3 d) intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal pretreatment with tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 activity inducer, reduced cortical damage and sensorimotor deficit at 24 h and even 1 month after ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Cortical glutathione levels robustly increased with tBHQ administration to rats and Nrf2-expressing mice, but not Nrf2(-/-) mice. Basal and inducible activities of antioxidant/detoxification enzymes in Nrf2(-/-) mice were reduced when compared with Nrf2(+/+) controls. Interestingly, larger infarcts were observed in Nrf2(-/-) mice at 7 d after stroke, but not at 24 h, suggesting that Nrf2 may play a role in shaping the penumbra well after the onset of ischemia. Neuronal death caused by a "penumbral" model of stroke, using intracortical endothelin-1 microinjection, was attenuated by tBHQ administration to Nrf2(+/+), but not to Nrf2(-/-) mice, confirming the Nrf2-specific action of tBHQ in vivo. We conclude that Nrf2 plays a role in modulating ischemic injury in vivo. Accordingly, Nrf2 activation by small molecule inducers may be a practical preventative treatment for stroke-prone patients.
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              Epigenetic regulation of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling.

               Yue Guo,  Siwang Yu (corresponding) ,  Chengyue Zhang (2015)
              The kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling axis serves as a "master regulator" in response to oxidative/electrophilic stresses and chemical insults through the coordinated induction of a wide array of cytoprotective genes. Therefore, activation of Nrf2 is considered to be an important approach for preventing chronic diseases triggered by stresses and toxins, including cancer. Despite extensive studies suggested that the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway is subject to multiple layers of regulation at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, the potential epigenetic regulation of Nrf2 and Keap1 has begun to be recognized only in recent years. Epigenetic modifications, heritable alterations in gene expression that occur without changes in the primary DNA sequence, have been reported to be profoundly involved in oxidative stress responses. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the epigenetic regulation of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling by DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs. The crosstalk among these epigenetic modifications in the regulation of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathways is also discussed. Studies of the epigenetic modification of Nrf2 and Keap1 have not only enhanced our understanding of this complex cellular defense system but have also provided potential new therapeutic targets for the prevention of certain diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
                Acta Pharmacol Sin
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                1671-4083
                1745-7254
                September 27 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41401-018-0154-z
                6318278
                30262824
                © 2018

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