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Directed nucleation assembly of DNA tile complexes for barcode-patterned lattices

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      DNA in a material world.

      The specific bonding of DNA base pairs provides the chemical foundation for genetics. This powerful molecular recognition system can be used in nanotechnology to direct the assembly of highly structured materials with specific nanoscale features, as well as in DNA computation to process complex information. The exploitation of DNA for material purposes presents a new chapter in the history of the molecule.
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        Design and self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals.

        Molecular self-assembly presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of objects specified with nanometre precision. DNA molecular structures and intermolecular interactions are particularly amenable to the design and synthesis of complex molecular objects. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNA that self-assemble from synthetic DNA double-crossover molecules. Intermolecular interactions between the structural units are programmed by the design of 'sticky ends' that associate according to Watson-Crick complementarity, enabling us to create specific periodic patterns on the nanometre scale. The patterned crystals have been visualized by atomic force microscopy.
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          A DNA-fuelled molecular machine made of DNA.

          Molecular recognition between complementary strands of DNA allows construction on a nanometre length scale. For example, DNA tags may be used to organize the assembly of colloidal particles, and DNA templates can direct the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and metal wires. As a structural material in its own right, DNA can be used to make ordered static arrays of tiles, linked rings and polyhedra. The construction of active devices is also possible--for example, a nanomechanical switch, whose conformation is changed by inducing a transition in the chirality of the DNA double helix. Melting of chemically modified DNA has been induced by optical absorption, and conformational changes caused by the binding of oligonucleotides or other small groups have been shown to change the enzymatic activity of ribozymes. Here we report the construction of a DNA machine in which the DNA is used not only as a structural material, but also as 'fuel'. The machine, made from three strands of DNA, has the form of a pair of tweezers. It may be closed and opened by addition of auxiliary strands of 'fuel' DNA; each cycle produces a duplex DNA waste product.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
            PNAS
            Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
            0027-8424
            1091-6490
            July 08 2003
            July 08 2003
            July 08 2003
            June 23 2003
            : 100
            : 14
            : 8103-8108
            10.1073/pnas.1032954100
            © 2003

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