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      New Frontiers of Body Composition in Sport

      1 , 2
      International Journal of Sports Medicine
      Georg Thieme Verlag KG

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          Abstract

          The body composition phenotype of an athlete displays the complex interaction among genotype, physiological and metabolic demands of a sport, diet, and physical training. Observational studies dominate the literature and describe the sport-specific physique characteristics (size, shape, and composition) of adult athletes by gender and levels of competition. Limited data reveal how body composition measurements can benefit an athlete. Thus, the objective is to identify purposeful measurements of body composition, notably fat and lean muscle masses, and determine their impact on the health and performance of athletes. Areas of interest include relationships among total and regional body composition measurements, muscle function, sport-specific performance, risk of injury, return to sport after injury, and identification of activity-induced fluid shifts. Discussion includes the application of specific uses of dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance including an emphasis on the need to minimize measurement errors and standardize protocols, and highlights opportunities for future research. This focus on functional body composition can benefit the health and optimize the performance of an athlete.

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          Most cited references144

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          Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study.

          Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. Prescreened female athletes with subsequent anterior cruciate ligament injury will demonstrate decreased neuromuscular control and increased valgus joint loading, predicting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. There were 205 female athletes in the high-risk sports of soccer, basketball, and volleyball prospectively measured for neuromuscular control using 3-dimensional kinematics (joint angles) and joint loads using kinetics (joint moments) during a jump-landing task. Analysis of variance as well as linear and logistic regression were used to isolate predictors of risk in athletes who subsequently ruptured the anterior cruciate ligament. Nine athletes had a confirmed anterior cruciate ligament rupture; these 9 had significantly different knee posture and loading compared to the 196 who did not have anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Knee abduction angle (P<.05) at landing was 8 degrees greater in anterior cruciate ligament-injured than in uninjured athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes had a 2.5 times greater knee abduction moment (P<.001) and 20% higher ground reaction force (P<.05), whereas stance time was 16% shorter; hence, increased motion, force, and moments occurred more quickly. Knee abduction moment predicted anterior cruciate ligament injury status with 73% specificity and 78% sensitivity; dynamic valgus measures showed a predictive r2 of 0.88. Knee motion and knee loading during a landing task are predictors of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes. Female athletes with increased dynamic valgus and high abduction loads are at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The methods developed may be used to monitor neuromuscular control of the knee joint and may help develop simpler measures of neuromuscular control that can be used to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted interventions.
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            Risk of Secondary Injury in Younger Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

            Injury to the ipsilateral graft used for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or a new injury to the contralateral ACL are disastrous outcomes after successful ACL reconstruction (ACLR), rehabilitation, and return to activity. Studies reporting ACL reinjury rates in younger active populations are emerging in the literature, but these data have not yet been comprehensively synthesized.
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              Bioelectrical impedance analysis-part II: utilization in clinical practice.

              BIA is easy, non-invasive, relatively inexpensive and can be performed in almost any subject because it is portable. Part II of these ESPEN guidelines reports results for fat-free mass (FFM), body fat (BF), body cell mass (BCM), total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW) from various studies in healthy and ill subjects. The data suggests that BIA works well in healthy subjects and in patients with stable water and electrolytes balance with a validated BIA equation that is appropriate with regard to age, sex and race. Clinical use of BIA in subjects at extremes of BMI ranges or with abnormal hydration cannot be recommended for routine assessment of patients until further validation has proven for BIA algorithm to be accurate in such conditions. Multi-frequency- and segmental-BIA may have advantages over single-frequency BIA in these conditions, but further validation is necessary. Longitudinal follow-up of body composition by BIA is possible in subjects with BMI 16-34 kg/m(2) without abnormal hydration, but must be interpreted with caution. Further validation of BIA is necessary to understand the mechanisms for the changes observed in acute illness, altered fat/lean mass ratios, extreme heights and body shape abnormalities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Sports Medicine
                Int J Sports Med
                Georg Thieme Verlag KG
                0172-4622
                1439-3964
                February 23 2021
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, Hyslop Sports Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, United States
                [2 ]Department of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States
                Article
                10.1055/a-1373-5881
                33621995
                9a6d0c17-e64e-4c32-837a-caa0c6e7ffbb
                © 2021
                History

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