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      Empagliflozin does not change cardiac index nor systemic vascular resistance but rapidly improves left ventricular filling pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study

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          Abstract

          Background

          In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial) treatment with the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin significantly reduced heart failure hospitalization (HHF) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and established cardiovascular disease. The early separation of the HHF event curves within the first 3 months of the trial suggest that immediate hemodynamic effects may play a role. However, hitherto no data exist on early effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on hemodynamic parameters and cardiac function. Thus, this study examined early and delayed effects of empagliflozin treatment on hemodynamic parameters including systemic vascular resistance index, cardiac index, and stroke volume index, as well as echocardiographic measures of cardiac function.

          Methods

          In this placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind, exploratory study patients with T2D were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg or placebo for a period of 3 months. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters were assessed after 1 day, 3 days and 3 months of treatment.

          Results

          Baseline characteristics were not different in the empagliflozin (n = 22) and placebo (n = 20) group. Empagliflozin led to a significant increase in urinary glucose excretion (baseline: 7.3 ± 22.7 g/24 h; day 1: 48.4 ± 34.7 g/24 h; p < 0.001) as well as urinary volume (1740 ± 601 mL/24 h to 2112 ± 837 mL/24 h; p = 0.011) already after one day compared to placebo. Treatment with empagliflozin had no effect on the primary endpoint of systemic vascular resistance index, nor on cardiac index, stroke volume index or pulse rate at any time point. In addition, echocardiography showed no difference in left ventricular systolic function as assessed by left ventricular ejections fraction and strain analysis. However, empagliflozin significantly improved left ventricular filling pressure as assessed by a reduction of early mitral inflow velocity relative to early diastolic left ventricular relaxation (E/eʹ) which became significant at day 1 of treatment (baseline: 9.2 ± 2.6; day 1: 8.5 ± 2.2; p = 0.005) and remained apparent throughout the study. This was primarily attributable to reduced early mitral inflow velocity E (baseline: 0.8 ± 0.2 m/s; day 1: 0.73 ± 0.2 m/sec; p = 0.003).

          Conclusions

          Empagliflozin treatment of patients with T2D has no significant effect on hemodynamic parameters after 1 or 3 days, nor after 3 months, but leads to rapid and sustained significant improvement of diastolic function.

          Trial registration EudraCT Number: 2016-000172-19; date of registration: 2017-02-20 (clinicaltrialregister.eu)

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          Most cited references 28

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          Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes.

          The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known.
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            Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes

            Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Results The mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.02 for superiority). Although on the basis of the prespecified hypothesis testing sequence the renal outcomes are not viewed as statistically significant, the results showed a possible benefit of canagliflozin with respect to the progression of albuminuria (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.79) and the composite outcome of a sustained 40% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the need for renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal causes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.77). Adverse reactions were consistent with the previously reported risks associated with canagliflozin except for an increased risk of amputation (6.3 vs. 3.4 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.75); amputations were primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. Conclusions In two trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, patients treated with canagliflozin had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those who received placebo but a greater risk of amputation, primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CANVAS and CANVAS-R ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01032629 and NCT01989754 , respectively.).
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              Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes

              The cardiovascular safety profile of dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 that promotes glucosuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, is undefined.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                nmarx@ukaachen.de
                nmarx@ukaachen.de
                Journal
                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovascular Diabetology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2840
                7 January 2021
                7 January 2021
                2021
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.1957.a, ISNI 0000 0001 0728 696X, Department of Internal Medicine I, , University Hospital Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, ; Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.1957.a, ISNI 0000 0001 0728 696X, Center for Translational & Clinical Research Aachen (CTC-A), , RWTH Aachen University, ; Aachen, Germany
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Saarland, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany
                Article
                1175
                10.1186/s12933-020-01175-5
                7791833
                33413355
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100008349, Boehringer Ingelheim;
                Funded by: Projekt DEAL
                Categories
                Original Investigation
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                hemodynamic parameters, sglt2 inhibitors, diabetes, diastolic function

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