Juncong Yan 1 , Chandan Pal 1 , Diane Anderson 2 , Gábor Vétek 3 , Péter Farkas 3 , Allan Burne 4 , Qing-Hai Fan 1 , Jinping Zhang 5 , Disna N. Gunawardana 1 , Rebijith Kayattukandy Balan 1 , Sherly George 1 , Dongmei Li , 1
15 February 2021
In the past decade, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) has caused extensive damage to global agriculture. As a high-risk pest for many countries, including New Zealand, it is important to explore its genetic diversity to enhance our knowledge and devise management strategies for BMSB populations. In this study, two mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome c oxidase II (COII) were used to explore the genetic diversity among 463 BMSB individuals collected from 12 countries.
In total, 51 COI and 29 COII haplotypes of BMSB were found, which formed 59 combined haplotypes (5 reported and 54 novel). Of these, H1h1 was the predominant haplotype. The haplotype diversity ( Hd) and nucleotide diversity ( π ) were high while the neutrality (Fu’s Fs) values were negative for the BMSB populations in the native countries, China, and Japan. For the BMSB populations from the invaded countries, the Fu’s Fs values were negative for populations from Chile, Georgia, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Turkey, and USA, indicating that those populations are under demographic expansion. In comparison, the Fu’s Fs values were positive for the populations from Austria, Serbia, and Slovenia, revealing a potential population bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that significant genetic difference exists among the BMSB populations from China, Japan, and the invasive countries.
This study revealed that the haplotype diversity of the BMSB populations was high in those two studied countries where BMSB is native to (China and Japan) but low in those countries which have been invaded by the species. The analysis indicated that multiple invasions of BMSB occurred in Europe and the USA. The study also revealed three ancestral lines and most of the novel haplotypes were evolved from them. Moreover, we observed two genetic clusters in the invasive populations that are formed during different invasion events. Our study provided a comprehensive overview on the global haplotypes distribution thus expanding the existing knowledge on BMSB genetic diversity that potentially could play an important role in formulating feasible pest management strategies.