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      Introduction of pulsed radiofrequency cautery in infraorbital nerve block method for postoperative pain management of trauma-induced zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture reduction

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          Although various cases of neuralgia and its treatments have been reported, not enough evidence is present to recommend a single type of treatment as the most effective. The patient we have dealt with experienced significant interferences in his daily life due to chronic allodynia, but the symptom could not be resolved via previously reported treatments. We report a case of which a patient who presented infraorbital neuralgia after trauma was successfully treated by a novel treatment strategy. The patient was treated by applying infraorbital nerve block and pulsed radiofrequency cautery side by side. Through this report, we evaluate proper prevention and treatment strategies for patients who develop infraorbital neuralgia through similar etiologies.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Neuropathic pain: principles of diagnosis and treatment.

          Neuropathic pain is caused by disease or injury of the nervous system and includes various chronic conditions that, together, affect up to 8% of the population. A substantial body of neuropathic pain research points to several important contributory mechanisms including aberrant ectopic activity in nociceptive nerves, peripheral and central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and pathological activation of microglia. Clinical evaluation of neuropathic pain requires a thorough history and physical examination to identify characteristic signs and symptoms. In many cases, other laboratory investigations and clinical neurophysiological testing may help identify the underlying etiology and guide treatment selection. Available treatments essentially provide only symptomatic relief and may include nonpharmacological, pharmacological, and interventional therapies. Most extensive evidence is available for pharmacological treatment, and currently recommended first-line treatments include antidepressants (tricyclic agents and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) and anticonvulsants (gabapentin and pregabalin). Individualized multidisciplinary patient care is facilitated by careful consideration of pain-related disability (eg, depression and occupational dysfunction) as well as patient education; repeat follow-up and strategic referral to appropriate medical/surgical subspecialties; and physical and psychological therapies. In the near future, continued preclinical and clinical research and development are expected to lead to further advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain.
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            Update on neuropathic pain treatment for trigeminal neuralgia

            Trigeminal neuralgia is a syndrome of unilateral, paroxysmal, stabbing facial pain, originating from the trigeminal nerve. Careful history of typical symptoms is crucial for diagnosis. Most cases are caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal root adjacent to the pons leading to focal demyelination and ephaptic axonal transmission. Brain imaging is required to exclude secondary causes. Many medical and surgical treatments are available. Most patients respond well to pharmacotherapy; carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are first line therapy, while lamotrigine and baclofen are considered second line treatments. Other drugs such as topiramate, levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and botulinum toxin-A are alternative treatments. Surgical options are available if medications are no longer effective or tolerated. Microvascular decompression, gamma knife radiosurgery, and percutaneous rhizotomies are most promising surgical alternatives. This paper reviews the medical and surgical therapeutic options for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, based on available evidence and guidelines.
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              Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: role of radiofrequency ablation

              Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a neuropathic pain condition affecting the face. It has a significant impact on the quality of life and physical function of patients. Evidence suggests that the likely etiology is vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve leading to focal demyelination and aberrant neural discharge. Secondary causes such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors can also produce symptomatic TN. Treatment must be individualized to each patient. Carbamazepine remains the drug of choice in the first-line treatment of TN. Minimally invasive interventional pain therapies and surgery are possible options when drug therapy fails. Younger patients may benefit from microvascular decompression. Elderly patients with poor surgical risk may be more suitable for percutaneous trigeminal nerve rhizolysis. The technique of radiofrequency rhizolysis of the trigeminal nerve is described in detail in this review.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                11 June 2019
                : 12
                : 1871-1876
                [1 ] Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Dongkang Medical Center , Ulsan, South Korea
                [2 ] Department of Plastic Surgery, Dongkang Medical Center , Ulsan, South Korea
                [3 ] Department of Medical Education, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York, NY, USA
                [4 ] Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gangneung Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine , Gangneung, South Korea
                [5 ] Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Semin Hospital , Ulsan, South Korea
                [6 ] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                Author notes
                Correspondence: So-Young JiDepartment of Plastic Surgery, Dongkang Medical Center , 239 Taehwa-ro, Jung-gu, Ulsan, South KoreaEmail csy0203@ 123456hanmail.net
                SangYoon JeonDepartment of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Dongkang Medical Center , 239 Taehwa-ro, Jung-gu, Ulsan, South KoreaEmail painfree82@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2019 Kim et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 13, Pages: 6
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