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      New therapeutic targets for the prevention of infectious acute exacerbations of COPD: role of epithelial adhesion molecules and inflammatory pathways

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          Abstract

          Chronic respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of mortality worldwide, with the major contributor, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounting for approximately 3 million deaths annually. Frequent acute exacerbations (AEs) of COPD (AECOPD) drive clinical and functional decline in COPD and are associated with accelerated loss of lung function, increased mortality, decreased health-related quality of life and significant economic costs. Infections with a small subgroup of pathogens precipitate the majority of AEs and consequently constitute a significant comorbidity in COPD. However, current pharmacological interventions are ineffective in preventing infectious exacerbations and their treatment is compromised by the rapid development of antibiotic resistance. Thus, alternative preventative therapies need to be considered. Pathogen adherence to the pulmonary epithelium through host receptors is the prerequisite step for invasion and subsequent infection of surrounding structures. Thus, disruption of bacterial–host cell interactions with receptor antagonists or modulation of the ensuing inflammatory profile present attractive avenues for therapeutic development. This review explores key mediators of pathogen–host interactions that may offer new therapeutic targets with the potential to prevent viral/bacterial-mediated AECOPD. There are several conceptual and methodological hurdles hampering the development of new therapies that require further research and resolution.

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          Most cited references 335

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          Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection.

          Although commensal bacteria are crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis of the intestine, the role of commensal bacteria in immune responses at other mucosal surfaces remains less clear. Here, we show that commensal microbiota composition critically regulates the generation of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following respiratory influenza virus infection. By using various antibiotic treatments, we found that neomycin-sensitive bacteria are associated with the induction of productive immune responses in the lung. Local or distal injection of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could rescue the immune impairment in the antibiotic-treated mice. Intact microbiota provided signals leading to the expression of mRNA for pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 at steady state. Following influenza virus infection, inflammasome activation led to migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the lung to the draining lymph node and T-cell priming. Our results reveal the importance of commensal microbiota in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa through the proper activation of inflammasomes.
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            Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of fluticasone propionate in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the ISOLDE trial.

            To determine the effect of long term inhaled corticosteroids on lung function, exacerbations, and health status in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Double blind, placebo controlled study. Eighteen UK hospitals. 751 men and women aged between 40 and 75 years with mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 50% of predicted normal. Inhaled fluticasone propionate 500 microgram twice daily from a metered dose inhaler or identical placebo. Efficacy measures: rate of decline in FEV(1) after the bronchodilator and in health status, frequency of exacerbations, respiratory withdrawals. Safety measures: morning serum cortisol concentration, incidence of adverse events. There was no significant difference in the annual rate of decline in FEV(1 )(P=0.16). Mean FEV(1) after bronchodilator remained significantly higher throughout the study with fluticasone propionate compared with placebo (P<0.001). Median exacerbation rate was reduced by 25% from 1.32 a year on placebo to 0.99 a year on with fluticasone propionate (P=0.026). Health status deteriorated by 3.2 units a year on placebo and 2.0 units a year on fluticasone propionate (P=0.0043). Withdrawals because of respiratory disease not related to malignancy were higher in the placebo group (25% v 19%, P=0.034). Fluticasone propionate 500 microgram twice daily did not affect the rate of decline in FEV(1) but did produce a small increase in FEV(1). Patients on fluticasone propionate had fewer exacerbations and a slower decline in health status. These improvements in clinical outcomes support the use of this treatment in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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              Proresolving lipid mediators and mechanisms in the resolution of acute inflammation.

              Inflammatory responses, like all biological cascades, are shaped by a delicate balance between positive and negative feedback loops. It is now clear that in addition to positive and negative checkpoints, the inflammatory cascade rather unexpectedly boasts an additional checkpoint, a family of chemicals that actively promote resolution and tissue repair without compromising host defense. Indeed, the resolution phase of inflammation is just as actively orchestrated and carefully choreographed as its induction and inhibition. In this review, we explore the immunological consequences of omega-3-derived specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) and discuss their place within what is currently understood of the role of the arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins, lipoxins, and their natural C15-epimers. We propose that treatment of inflammation should not be restricted to the use of inhibitors of the acute cascade (antagonism) but broadened to take account of the enormous therapeutic potential of inducers (agonists) of the resolution phase of inflammation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Science
                Portland Press Ltd.
                0143-5221
                1470-8736
                July 2019
                July 31 2019
                July 2019
                July 31 2019
                July 25 2019
                : 133
                : 14
                : 1663-1703
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7248, Australia
                [2 ]Woolcock Emphysema Centre, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney 2037, NSW, Australia
                [3 ]University Children’s Hospital Basel UKBB, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
                [4 ]Discipline of Medical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney 2007, NSW, Australia
                [5 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Launceston General Hospital, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia
                [6 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tasmanian Health Services (THS), North West Hospital, Burnie, Tasmania, Australia
                [7 ]Clinical School, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia
                [8 ]School of Health and Biomedical Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                [9 ]Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                [10 ]Department of Infectious Disease, Launceston General Hospital, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia
                [11 ]Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute and University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, and Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute and University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
                Article
                10.1042/CS20181009
                © 2019

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