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      Anemia of Inflammation

      1

      New England Journal of Medicine

      Massachusetts Medical Society

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          Most cited references 53

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          Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

          Anaemia caused by iron deficiency is common in children younger than age 5 years in eastern Africa. However, there is concern that universal supplementation of children with iron and folic acid in areas of high malaria transmission might be harmful. We did a randomised, placebo-controlled trial, of children aged 1-35 months and living in Pemba, Zanzibar. We assigned children to daily oral supplementation with: iron (12.5 mg) and folic acid (50 mug; n=7950), iron, folic acid, and zinc (n=8120), or placebo (n=8006); children aged 1-11 months received half the dose. Our primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and admission to hospital. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN59549825. The iron and folic acid-containing groups of the trial were stopped early on Aug 19, 2003, on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board. To this date, 24 076 children contributed a follow-up of 25,524 child-years. Those who received iron and folic acid with or without zinc were 12% (95% CI 2-23, p=0.02) more likely to die or need treatment in hospital for an adverse event and 11% (1-23%, p=0.03) more likely to be admitted to hospital; there were also 15% (-7 to 41, p=0.19) more deaths in these groups. Routine supplementation with iron and folic acid in preschool children in a population with high rates of malaria can result in an increased risk of severe illness and death. In the presence of an active programme to detect and treat malaria and other infections, iron-deficient and anaemic children can benefit from supplementation. However, supplementation of those who are not iron deficient might be harmful. As such, current guidelines for universal supplementation with iron and folic acid should be revised.
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            Transforming growth factor-β superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis.

            Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation of early-stage erythrocyte precursors and is widely used for the treatment of chronic anemia. However, several types of EPO-resistant anemia are characterized by defects in late-stage erythropoiesis, which is EPO independent. Here we investigated regulation of erythropoiesis using a ligand-trapping fusion protein (ACE-536) containing the extracellular domain of human activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) modified to reduce activin binding. ACE-536, or its mouse version RAP-536, produced rapid and robust increases in erythrocyte numbers in multiple species under basal conditions and reduced or prevented anemia in murine models. Unlike EPO, RAP-536 promoted maturation of late-stage erythroid precursors in vivo. Cotreatment with ACE-536 and EPO produced a synergistic erythropoietic response. ACE-536 bound growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and potently inhibited GDF11-mediated Smad2/3 signaling. GDF11 inhibited erythroid maturation in mice in vivo and ex vivo. Expression of GDF11 and ActRIIB in erythroid precursors decreased progressively with maturation, suggesting an inhibitory role for GDF11 in late-stage erythroid differentiation. RAP-536 treatment also reduced Smad2/3 activation, anemia, erythroid hyperplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis in a mouse model of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These findings implicate transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling in erythroid maturation and identify ACE-536 as a new potential treatment for anemia, including that caused by ineffective erythropoiesis.
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              Erythropoiesis: development and differentiation.

              Through their oxygen delivery function, red blood cells are pivotal to the healthy existence of all vertebrate organisms. These cells are required during all stages of life--embryonic, fetal, neonatal, adolescent, and adult. In the adult, red blood cells are the terminally differentiated end-product cells of a complex hierarchy of hematopoietic progenitors that become progressively restricted to the erythroid lineage. During this stepwise differentiation process, erythroid progenitors undergo enormous expansion, so as to fulfill the daily requirement of ~2 × 10(11) new erythrocytes. How the erythroid lineage is made has been a topic of intense research over the last decades. Developmental studies show that there are two types of red blood cells--embryonic and adult. They develop from distinct hemogenic/hematopoietic progenitors in different anatomical sites and show distinct genetic programs. This article highlights the developmental and differentiation events necessary in the production of hemoglobin-producing red blood cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                September 19 2019
                September 19 2019
                : 381
                : 12
                : 1148-1157
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Departments of Medicine and Pathology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles.
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMra1804281
                © 2019
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