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      Catalpol in Diabetes and its Complications: A Review of Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety

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          Abstract

          This review aimed to provide a general view of catalpol in protection against diabetes and diabetic complications, as well as its pharmacokinetics and safety concerns. The following databases were consulted with the retrieval of more than 100 publications through June 2019: PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Data, and web of science. Catalpol exerts an anti-diabetic effect in different animal models with an oral dosage ranging from 2.5 to 200 mg/kg in rats and 10 to 200 mg/kg in mice. Besides, catalpol may prevent the development of diabetic complications in kidney, heart, central nervous system, and bone. The underlying mechanism may be associated with an inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis through modulation of various cellular signaling, such as AMPK/PI3K/Akt, PPAR/ACC, JNK/NF-κB, and AGE/RAGE/NOX4 signaling pathways, as well as PKCγ and Cav-1 expression. The pharmacokinetic profile reveals that catalpol could pass the blood-brain barrier and has a potential to be orally administrated. Taken together, catalpol is a well-tolerated natural compound with promising pharmacological actions in protection against diabetes and diabetic complications via multi-targets, offering a novel scaffold for the development of anti-diabetic drug candidate. Further prospective and well-designed clinical trials will shed light on the potential of clinical usage of catalpol.

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          Metabolic signaling in fuel-induced insulin secretion.

          The pancreatic islet β cell senses circulating levels of calorigenic nutrients to secrete insulin according to the needs of the organism. Altered insulin secretion is linked to various disorders such as diabetes, hypoglycemic states, and cardiometabolic diseases. Fuel stimuli, including glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids, promote insulin granule exocytosis primarily via their metabolism in β cells and the production of key signaling metabolites. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the pathways involved in both positive and negative metabolic signaling for insulin secretion and assesses the role of established and candidate metabolic coupling factors, keeping recent developments in focus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Diabetic kidney disease: a report from an ADA Consensus Conference.

            The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus have grown significantly throughout the world, due primarily to the increase in type 2 diabetes. This overall increase in the number of people with diabetes has had a major impact on development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent complications of both types of diabetes. DKD is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), accounting for approximately 50% of cases in the developed world. Although incidence rates for ESRD attributable to DKD have recently stabilized, these rates continue to rise in high-risk groups such as middle-aged African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics. The costs of care for people with DKD are extraordinarily high. In the Medicare population alone, DKD-related expenditures among this mostly older group were nearly $25 billion in 2011. Due to the high human and societal costs, the Consensus Conference on Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes was convened by the American Diabetes Association in collaboration with the American Society of Nephrology and the National Kidney Foundation to appraise issues regarding patient management, highlighting current practices and new directions. Major topic areas in DKD included (1) identification and monitoring, (2) cardiovascular disease and management of dyslipidemia, (3) hypertension and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade, (4) glycemia measurement, hypoglycemia, and drug therapies, (5) nutrition and general care in advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, (6) children and adolescents, and (7) multidisciplinary approaches and medical home models for health care delivery. This current state summary and research recommendations are designed to guide advances in care and the generation of new knowledge that will meaningfully improve life for people with DKD.
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              An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

              Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                11 September 2019
                September 2019
                : 24
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Diabetes Research Center, Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China; bybucm@ 123456163.com (Y.B.); zhuruyuan7@ 123456163.com (R.Z.); tymtianyimiao@ 123456126.com (Y.T.); bucmlirui@ 123456163.com (R.L.); cbb8969@ 123456163.com (B.C.); zhangxiaohaoxyz@ 123456163.com (H.Z.); xiabk1230@ 123456163.com (B.X.); bucmzhaodandan@ 123456163.com (D.Z.); xiaofang.tcm@ 123456163.com (F.M.)
                [2 ]Sino-Canada Anti-Fibrosis Center, Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: dongwei1006@ 123456gmail.com (D.Z.); gaosihua1216@ 123456163.com (S.G.); Tel.: +86-10-64286915 (S.G.)
                Article
                molecules-24-03302
                10.3390/molecules24183302
                6767014
                31514313
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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