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      The non-canonical NF-κB pathway in immunity and inflammation

      Nature Reviews Immunology

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Defects in the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation are associated with severe immune deficiencies, and aberrant activation of this pathway can cause autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, the author investigates the activation, signalling mechanisms and the biological function of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway.

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          Most cited references 135

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          IAP antagonists induce autoubiquitination of c-IAPs, NF-kappaB activation, and TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis.

          Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are antiapoptotic regulators that block cell death in response to diverse stimuli. They are expressed at elevated levels in human malignancies and are attractive targets for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Herein, we demonstrate that small-molecule IAP antagonists bind to select baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains resulting in dramatic induction of auto-ubiquitination activity and rapid proteasomal degradation of c-IAPs. The IAP antagonists also induce cell death that is dependent on TNF signaling and de novo protein biosynthesis. Additionally, the c-IAP proteins were found to function as regulators of NF-kappaB signaling. Through their ubiquitin E3 ligase activities c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 promote proteasomal degradation of NIK, the central ser/thr kinase in the noncanonical NF-kappaB pathway.
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            IAP antagonists target cIAP1 to induce TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis.

            XIAP prevents apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting caspases, and this inhibition can be relieved by IAP antagonists, such as Smac/DIABLO. IAP antagonist compounds (IACs) have therefore been designed to inhibit XIAP to kill tumor cells. Because XIAP inhibits postmitochondrial caspases, caspase 8 inhibitors should not block killing by IACs. Instead, we show that apoptosis caused by an IAC is blocked by the caspase 8 inhibitor crmA and that IAP antagonists activate NF-kappaB signaling via inhibtion of cIAP1. In sensitive tumor lines, IAP antagonist induced NF-kappaB-stimulated production of TNFalpha that killed cells in an autocrine fashion. Inhibition of NF-kappaB reduced TNFalpha production, and blocking NF-kappaB activation or TNFalpha allowed tumor cells to survive IAC-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with an IAC, or those in which cIAP1 was deleted, became sensitive to apoptosis induced by exogenous TNFalpha, suggesting novel uses of these compounds in treating cancer.
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              Non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway.

               Cong Sun (2010)
              The non-canonical NF-κB pathway is an important arm of NF-κB signaling that predominantly targets activation of the p52/RelB NF-κB complex. This pathway depends on the inducible processing of p100, a molecule functioning as both the precursor of p52 and a RelB-specific inhibitor. A central signaling component of the non-canonical pathway is NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), which integrates signals from a subset of TNF receptor family members and activates a downstream kinase, IκB kinase-α (IKKα), for triggering p100 phosphorylation and processing. A unique mechanism of NIK regulation is through its fate control: the basal level of NIK is kept low by a TRAF-cIAP destruction complex and signal-induced non-canonical NF-κB signaling involves NIK stabilization. Tight control of the fate of NIK is important, since deregulated NIK accumulation is associated with lymphoid malignancies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Nature
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                June 5 2017
                June 5 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nri.2017.52
                5753586
                28580957
                © 2017
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