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      Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

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      Antioxidants

      MDPI

      red fruit, berry, antioxidant extraction, scavenging assay, phenolic content

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          Abstract

          Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and bilberries ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content.

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          Most cited references 95

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          Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL))) of plasma and other biological and food samples.

          Methods are described for the extraction and analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, using modifications of the oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC(FL)) procedure. These methods provide, for the first time, the ability to obtain a measure of "total antioxidant capacity" in the protein free plasma, using the same peroxyl radical generator for both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Separation of the lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant fractions from plasma was accomplished by extracting with hexane after adding water and ethanol to the plasma (hexane/plasma/ethanol/water, 4:1:2:1, v/v). Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants were efficiently partitioned between hexane and aqueous solvents. Conditions for controlling temperature effects and decreasing assay variability using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe were validated in different laboratories. Incubation (37 degrees C for at least 30 min) of the buffer to which AAPH was dissolved was critical in decreasing assay variability. Lipophilic antioxidants represented 33.1 +/- 1.5 and 38.2 +/- 1.9% of the total antioxidant capacity of the protein free plasma in two independent studies of 6 and 10 subjects, respectively. Methods are described for application of the assay techniques to other types of biological and food samples.
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            Review of Methods to Determine Antioxidant Capacities

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              Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currants, gooseberries and Cornelian cherries

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                19 January 2017
                March 2017
                : 6
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avinguda Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028, Spain; chemicontact@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: m.pilar.almajano@ 123456upc.edu ; Tel.: +34-934-016-686
                Article
                antioxidants-06-00007
                10.3390/antiox6010007
                5384171
                28106822
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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