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      Personality trait structure as a human universal.

      1 ,

      The American psychologist

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          Abstract

          Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Am Psychol
          The American psychologist
          0003-066X
          0003-066X
          May 1997
          : 52
          : 5
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Personality, Stress, and Coping Section, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
          Article
          9145021

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