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      The emergence of the metabolic syndrome with menopause.

      1
      The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
      The Endocrine Society

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          Abstract

          Women with the metabolic syndrome (central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia) are known to be at especially high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increases with menopause and may partially explain the apparent acceleration in CVD after menopause. The transition from pre- to postmenopause is associated with the emergence of many features of the metabolic syndrome, including 1) increased central (intraabdominal) body fat; 2) a shift toward a more atherogenic lipid profile, with increased low density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels, reduced high density lipoprotein, and small, dense low density lipoprotein particles; 3) and increased glucose and insulin levels. The emergence of these risk factors may be a direct result of ovarian failure or, alternatively, an indirect result of the metabolic consequences of central fat redistribution with estrogen deficiency. It is unclear whether the transition to menopause increases CVD risk in all women or only those who develop features of the metabolic syndrome. This article will review the features of the metabolic syndrome that emerge with estrogen deficiency. A better understanding of these metabolic changes with menopause will aid in the recognition and treatment of women at risk for future CVD, leading to appropriate interventions.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Clin Endocrinol Metab
          The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
          The Endocrine Society
          0021-972X
          0021-972X
          Jun 2003
          : 88
          : 6
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-6426, USA. carr@u.washington.edu
          Article
          10.1210/jc.2003-030242
          12788835
          9ad91a61-3e47-4685-96dc-0a390886ceb2
          History

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