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      Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions

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          Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed.

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          Most cited references 255

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          Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.

          It has been suggested that effective defense against biotrophic pathogens is largely due to programmed cell death in the host, and to associated activation of defense responses regulated by the salicylic acid-dependent pathway. In contrast, necrotrophic pathogens benefit from host cell death, so they are not limited by cell death and salicylic acid-dependent defenses, but rather by a different set of defense responses activated by jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling. This review summarizes results from Arabidopsis-pathogen systems regarding the contributions of various defense responses to resistance to several biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. While the model above seems generally correct, there are exceptions and additional complexities.
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            Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants.

            Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been found to occur more specifically in some plant species. Most PRs and related proteins are induced through the action of the signaling compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, and possess antimicrobial activities in vitro through hydrolytic activities on cell walls, contact toxicity, and perhaps an involvement in defense signaling. However, when expressed in transgenic plants, they reduce only a limited number of diseases, depending on the nature of the protein, plant species, and pathogen involved. As exemplified by the PR-1 proteins in Arabidopsis and rice, many homologous proteins belonging to the same family are regulated developmentally and may serve different functions in specific organs or tissues. Several defense-related proteins are induced during senescence, wounding or cold stress, and some possess antifreeze activity. Many defense-related proteins are present constitutively in floral tissues and a substantial number of PR-like proteins in pollen, fruits, and vegetables can provoke allergy in humans. The evolutionary conservation of similar defense-related proteins in monocots and dicots, but also their divergent occurrence in other conditions, suggest that these proteins serve essential functions in plant life, whether in defense or not.
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              Systemic acquired resistance.

              Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a mechanism of induced defense that confers long-lasting protection against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. SAR requires the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA) and is associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins, which are thought to contribute to resistance. Much progress has been made recently in elucidating the mechanism of SAR. Using the model plant Arabidopsis, it was discovered that the isochorismate pathway is the major source of SA during SAR. In response to SA, the positive regulator protein NPR1 moves to the nucleus where it interacts with TGA transcription factors to induce defense gene expression, thus activating SAR. Exciting new data suggest that the mobile signal for SAR might be a lipid molecule. We discuss the molecular and genetic data that have contributed to our understanding of SAR and present a model describing the sequence of events leading from initial infection to the induction of defense genes.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                06 August 2015
                : 6
                1Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary
                2Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Horticulture, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary
                3Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Agricultural Research, Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Debrecen, Hungary
                4Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Debrecen Debrecen, Hungary
                Author notes

                Edited by: Essaid Ait Barka, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France

                Reviewed by: Michael Wink, Heidelberg University, Germany; Xiquan Gao, Nanjing Agricultural University, China

                *Correspondence: Tünde Pusztahelyi, Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi út 138, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary pusztahelyi@

                This article was submitted to Plant Biotic Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2015 Pusztahelyi, Holb and Pócsi.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 259, Pages: 23, Words: 18254
                Funded by: Hungarian Scientific Research Fund
                Award ID: OTKA K100464
                Award ID: OTKA K108333
                Plant Science


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