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      Epidemiology of Kawasaki Disease in Asia, Europe, and the United States

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          Abstract

          Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mainly affects children younger than 5 years. Although Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki first reported KD over 40 years ago, the cause of the disease remains unknown. Currently, KD has been diagnosed in more than 60 countries, including those in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa, as well as in North America and Europe. The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiologic features of KD—particularly its incidence, seasonality, and the occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities—primarily in Japan and the United States, but also in Europe and other Asian countries.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management of Kawasaki Disease: A Statement for Health Professionals From the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association

          Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limited vasculitis of childhood that is characterized by fever, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, changes in the extremities, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia develop in approximately 15% to 25% of untreated children and may lead to ischemic heart disease or sudden death. A multidisciplinary committee of experts was convened to revise the American Heart Association recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease. The writing group proposes a new algorithm to aid clinicians in deciding which children with fever for > or =5 days and < or =4 classic criteria should undergo echocardiography, receive intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment, or both for Kawasaki disease. The writing group reviews the available data regarding the initial treatment for children with acute Kawasaki disease, as well for those who have persistent or recrudescent fever despite initial therapy with IVIG, including IVIG retreatment and treatment with corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, and abciximab. Long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease is tailored to the degree of coronary involvement; recommendations regarding antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, physical activity, follow-up assessment, and the appropriate diagnostic procedures to evaluate cardiac disease are classified according to risk strata. Recommendations for the initial evaluation, treatment in the acute phase, and long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease are intended to assist physicians in understanding the range of acceptable approaches for caring for patients with Kawasaki disease. The ultimate decisions for case management must be made by physicians in light of the particular conditions presented by individual patients.
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            Hospitalizations for Kawasaki syndrome among children in the United States, 1997-2007.

            The present study describes the rate and trends of childhood hospitalizations with Kawasaki syndrome (KS) in the United States. Retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with KS among children <18 years of age in the United States using the Kids' Inpatient Database (1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006) and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2007). The KS-associated hospitalization rate for children <5 years of age was 20.8 (95% CI: 18.5-23.1) per 100,000 children in 2006. Annual rates remained constant during the study period, except for a peak in 2005. In 2006, 76.8% (SE = 0.9%) of an estimated 5523 (SE = 289) KS-associated hospitalizations among children <18 years of age were <5 years of age. The mean age for all children at hospitalization was 3.0 years (SE <0.1); 25.7 months (SE = 0.3) for children <5 years of age, and 24.8 months (SE = 0.4) and 27.1 months (SE = 0.5) for boys and girls, respectively. The rate for boys was higher than that for girls (24.2 [95% CI: 21.3-27.1] and 16.8 [95% CI: 14.7-18.9], respectively). The rate for Asian/Pacific Islander children (30.3 [95% CI: 20.2-40.4]) was the highest among the racial groups. The national KS-associated annual hospitalization rate for children <5 years of age from 1997 to 2007 was relatively stable and was similar to previously published rates, except for an increase in 2005. Most hospitalizations were in children <3 years of age with few hospitalizations during the first 2 months of age. Children of Asian/Pacific Islander descent had the highest hospitalization rate.
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              Epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease in Taiwan, 2003-2006.

              Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children worldwide. This study characterizes the epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in Taiwan between 2003 and 2006. Using Taiwan's 2003-2006 national health insurance claims, we investigated the epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease (ICD-9-CM code 446.1) and coronary artery aneurysm formation (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 414.11) and compared the incidences of these diseases with those occurring between 1996 and 2002 in Taiwan and those reported by other countries. During our 4-year study period, 3877 children and adolescents <20 years of age were hospitalized for Kawasaki disease. Ninety percent of these children were <5 years of age, and the male/female ratio was 1.62:1. The annual incidence of Kawasaki disease was 153 in 100000 children <1 year of age, 111 in children 1 year of age, 58 in children 2 years of age, 30 in children 3 years of age, 19 in children 4 years of age, and 5.2 in children 5 to 9 years of age. The overall incidence was 69 cases per 100000 for children <5 years of age. Kawasaki disease recurred in 1.5% of all cases. Kawasaki disease occurred most frequently in the summer and least frequently in the winter. Coronary artery aneurysm occurred in 7.2% (279 of 3877) of all Kawasaki disease cases. The overall incidence of Kawasaki disease was 69 in 100000 children <5 years of age between 2003 and 2006 in Taiwan, comparable with the incidence of 66 in 100000 children between 1996 and 2002. Taiwan has the third highest incidence of Kawasaki disease in the world, after Japan and Korea. In Taiwan, it occurs more frequently during the summer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Epidemiol
                J Epidemiol
                JE
                Journal of Epidemiology
                Japan Epidemiological Association
                0917-5040
                1349-9092
                5 March 2012
                4 February 2012
                2012
                : 22
                : 2
                : 79-85
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Japan
                [2 ]Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence. Ritei Uehara, MD, Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan (e-mail: u-ritei@ 123456jichi.ac.jp ).
                Article
                JE20110131
                10.2188/jea.JE20110131
                3798585
                22307434
                © 2012 Japan Epidemiological Association.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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