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      Development and evaluation of novel-trans-buccoadhesive films of Famotidine

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          Abstract

          The present investigation highlights the novel trans-buccoadhesive films of Famotidine, an H2 receptor antagonist used as an anti-ulcerative agent. The buccal films were fabricated by solvent casting technique with different polymer combinations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, carbopol-934P and polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Drug–polymer interaction studies by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that there is no significant interaction between drug and polymers. The fabricated films were evaluated for their physicochemical characters like weight, thickness, surface pH, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, swelling percentage, folding endurance, water vapor transmission and drug content. Stability study of buccal films was performed in natural human saliva. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted using fresh sheep buccal mucosa and buccoadhesive strength was calculated by modified balance method and showed sufficient strength in all the formulations. Good correlation was observed between the in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release, with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. Drug diffusion from buccal films showed apparently zero order kinetics and release mechanism was diffusion controlled after considerable swelling.

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          Design and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches containing cetylpyridinium chloride.

          Mucoadhesive patches for delivery of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and chitosan. Swelling and bioadhesive characteristics were determined for both plain and medicated patches. The results showed a remarkable increase in radial swelling (S(D)) after addition of the water-soluble drug (CPC) to the plain formulae. A decrease in the residence time was observed for PVA and chitosan-containing formulae. Higher drug release was obtained from PVA patches compared to HEC ones, while both are non-ionic polymers. A considerable drop in release was observed for chitosan formulae after the addition of water-soluble additives, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and gelatin. Ageing was done on PVA formulae; the results showed there was no influence on the chemical stability of CPC, as reflected from the drug content data. Physical characteristics of the studied patches showed an increase in the residence time with storage accompanied with a decrease in drug release. This may be due to changes in the crystal habit of the drug as well as to slight agglomeration of the polymer particles.
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            Formulation, evaluation, and comparison of bilayered and multilayered mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride.

            The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) in the forms of bilayered and multilayered tablets. The tablets were prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol-934 (CP) as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose (EC) to act as an impermeable backing layer. Buccal devices were evaluated by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness, surface pH, swelling index, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, and in vitro drug permeation. As compared with bilayered tablets, multilayered tablets showed slow release rate of drug with improved ex vivo bioadhesive strength and enhanced ex vivo mucoadhesion time. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion (value of n between 0.5 and 1.0) for both the buccal devices. The stability of drug in both the optimized buccal devices was tested for 6 hours in natural human saliva; both the buccal devices were found to be stable in natural human saliva. The present study concludes that mucoadhesive buccal devices of PRH can be a good way to bypass the extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of PRH.
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              Design and evaluation of matrix diffusion controlled transdermal patches of verapamil hydrochloride.

              Transdermal patches of verapamil hydrochloride were prepared using four different polymers (individual and combination): Eudragit RL100 (ERL100), Eudragit RS100 (ERS100), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (HPMC), and ethyl cellulose (EC), of varying degrees of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. The effect of the polymers on the technological properties, i.e., drug release, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), and percentage moisture loss (ML), percentage moisture absorption (MA), folding endurance, and thickness, was investigated. Different formulations were prepared in accordance with the 2(3) factorial design, with ERL100 being the parent polymer. The patch containing ERL100 alone showed maximum WVTR, % MA, and % ML, which could be attributed to its hydrophilic nature. As expected, substitution with ERS100, HPMC, and EC decreased all the above values in accordance with their decreasing degree of hydrophilicity. In vitro release studies showed zero-order release of the drug from all the patches, and the mechanism of release was diffusion mediated. Moreover, the release of the drug was sustained and it extended over a period of 24 hr in all formulations. A12 emerged as the most satisfactory formulation insofar as its technological properties were concerned. Further, release and permeation of the drug from the most satisfactory formulation (A12) was evaluated through different biological barriers (shed snake skin, rabbit skin, and rat skin) to get an idea of the drug permeation through human skin. Shed snake's skin was found to be most permeable (82.56% drug release at 24 hr) and rat skin was least permeable (52.38%). Percutaneous absorption studies were carried out in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from blood levels of the drug revealed a profile typical of a sustained release formulation, with the ability to maintain adequate plasma levels for 24 hr. [AUC: 3.09 mg/mL hr, Cmax: 203.95 microg/mL, Tmax: 8 hr]. It can therefore be concluded that the patch containing ERL100 and HPMC in the ratio 8:2 has achieved the objectives of transdermal drug delivery system, such as avoidance of first pass effect, extended release, and reduced frequency of administration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Adv Pharm Technol Res
                JAPTR
                Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
                Medknow Publications Pvt Ltd (India )
                2231-4040
                0976-2094
                Jan-Mar 2011
                : 2
                : 1
                : 17-23
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmaceutics, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, QIS College of Pharmacy, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Mr. M. Alagusundaram, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New Boyanapalli, Rajampet – 516 126, Andhra Pradesh, India. E-mail: alagu_sundaram@ 123456rediffmail.com
                Article
                JAPTR-2-17
                10.4103/2231-4040.79800
                3217676
                22171287
                © Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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