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Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis among the Lur population of Lorestan Province of Iran

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      Abstract

      Objective

      Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Host genetic variability is an important determinant of the risk of developing TB in humans. Although the association between MBL polymorphisms and TB has been studied in various populations, the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate mannose-binding lectin ( MBL) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a Lur population of Iran.

      Methods

      In this case-control study, four functional MBL gene polymorphisms ( HL, XY, PQ and AB) were genotyped by using PCR Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique in a Lur population living in Lorestan Province, consisting of 100 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) age and sex matched 100 healthy controls (HCs). Association analyses were performed with the SPSS 21 statistical software.

      Results

      We found that MBL ( HH) genotype polymorphism significantly was associated with increased susceptibility to TB (35% in patients vs. 22% in controls, P = 0.0417, OR = 1.909, %95 CI = 1.020–3.573). Additionally, H allele showed a significant association with increased risk of TB (56.5% in patients vs. 46% in controls, P = 0.0357, OR = 1.525, %95 CI = 1.028–2.262). Also, the distribution of L allele in patients was significantly lower frequency in TB patients compared to controls (43.5% vs. 54%, P = 0.0357, OR = 0.656, %95 CI = 0.442–0.973). However, the allelic and genotypic frequencies of AB, XY and PQ polymorphisms were not significantly different between the patients and the controls. We couldn't detect any significant differences between haplotypes among TB patients and healthy controls.

      Conclusions

      Our findings demonstrated that HH genotype and H allele may increase the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in the Lur population of Iran, although L allele may decrease the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in this population. We suggest that it is necessary to further more studies with larger sample size and other ethnic population.

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      Most cited references 61

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      Genetic dissection of immunity to mycobacteria: the human model.

      Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental mycobacteria (EM), and most children are inoculated with live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. In addition, most of the world's population is occasionally exposed to human-borne mycobacterial species, which are less abundant but more virulent. Although rarely pathogenic, mildly virulent mycobacteria, including BCG and most EM, may cause a variety of clinical diseases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, and EM M. ulcerans are more virulent, causing tuberculosis, leprosy, and Buruli ulcer, respectively. Remarkably, only a minority of individuals develop clinical disease, even if infected with virulent mycobacteria. The interindividual variability of clinical outcome is thought to result in part from variability in the human genes that control host defense. In this well-defined microbiological and clinical context, the principles of mouse immunology and the methods of human genetics can be combined to facilitate the genetic dissection of immunity to mycobacteria. The natural infections are unique to the human model, not being found in any of the animal models of experimental infection. We review current genetic knowledge concerning the simple and complex inheritance of predisposition to mycobacterial diseases in humans. Rare patients with Mendelian disorders have been found to be vulnerable to BCG, a few EM, and M. tuberculosis. Most cases of presumed Mendelian susceptibility to these and other mycobacterial species remain unexplained. In the general population leprosy and tuberculosis have been shown to be associated with certain human genetic polymorphisms and linked to certain chromosomal regions. The causal vulnerability genes themselves have yet to be identified and their pathogenic alleles immunologically validated. The studies carried out to date have been fruitful, initiating the genetic dissection of protective immunity against a variety of mycobacterial species in natural conditions of infection. The human model has potential uses beyond the study of mycobacterial infections and may well become a model of choice for the investigation of immunity to infectious agents.
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        Tuberculosis.

        Tuberculosis results in an estimated 1·7 million deaths each year and the worldwide number of new cases (more than 9 million) is higher than at any other time in history. 22 low-income and middle-income countries account for more than 80% of the active cases in the world. Due to the devastating effect of HIV on susceptibility to tuberculosis, sub-Saharan Africa has been disproportionately affected and accounts for four of every five cases of HIV-associated tuberculosis. In many regions highly endemic for tuberculosis, diagnosis continues to rely on century-old sputum microscopy; there is no vaccine with adequate effectiveness and tuberculosis treatment regimens are protracted and have a risk of toxic effects. Increasing rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis in eastern Europe, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa now threaten to undermine the gains made by worldwide tuberculosis control programmes. Moreover, our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease is inadequate. However, increased investment has allowed basic science and translational and applied research to produce new data, leading to promising progress in the development of improved tuberculosis diagnostics, biomarkers of disease activity, drugs, and vaccines. The growing scientific momentum must be accompanied by much greater investment and political commitment to meet this huge persisting challenge to public health. Our Seminar presents current perspectives on the scale of the epidemic, the pathogen and the host response, present and emerging methods for disease control (including diagnostics, drugs, biomarkers, and vaccines), and the ongoing challenge of tuberculosis control in adults in the 21st century. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          Statistics notes. The odds ratio.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [a ]Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
            [b ]Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
            [c ]Department of Immunology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
            [d ]Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
            [e ]Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
            Author notes
            [* ]Corresponding author. Shahsavarfarhad@ 123456yahoo.com
            Contributors
            Journal
            Genom Data
            Genom Data
            Genomics Data
            Elsevier
            2213-5960
            04 May 2017
            June 2017
            04 May 2017
            : 12
            : 146-150
            5432655 S2213-5960(17)30041-7 10.1016/j.gdata.2017.05.005
            © 2017 The Authors

            This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

            Categories
            Regular Article

            mbl, pulmonary tuberculosis, lur population

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