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      Preparative separation and quantitative determination of two kaurenoic acid isomers in root barks of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

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          The kaurenoic acid-type diterpenoids in Acanthopanacis Cortex have been reported to be the major active components. However, the diterpenoids are present as position isomers that exacerbate the challenges in obtaining standards compounds. Little work has been done on the quantitative analysis of the diterpenoids in the herb. In the present study, two diterpenoid isomers ent-16 βH,17-isovalerate-kauran-19-oic acid ( 1) and ent-16 βH,17-methyl butanoate-kauran-19-oic acid ( 2) with high purity were separated by analytical HPLC, followed by recrystallization in acetone. Furthermore, an HPLC-ELSD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 1 and 2 in 9 batches of Acanthopanacis Cortex samples. The HPLC separation and quantification was achieved in 40 min using an Agela Promosil C 18 column eluted with a gradient of water and acetonitrile. The calibration curves showed good linearity ( r 2 ≥ 0.999 9) within the test ranges. The LOD ranged from 0.407 2 to 0.518 0 μg and LOQ ranged from 1.018 0 to 1.295 0 μg. The precisions (%RSD) were within 1.47% for the two isomers. The recovery of the assay was in the range of 98.78%–99.11% with RSD values less than 2.76%. It is the first time to establish a quantitative HPLC method for the analysis of the bioactive kaurenoic acid isomers in the herb.

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          Kaurane and pimarane-type diterpenes from the Viguiera species inhibit vascular smooth muscle contractility.

          The research, development and use of natural products as therapeutic agents, especially those derived from plants, have been increasing in recent years. Despite the fact that plants provide a rich source of novel biologically active compounds, only a small percentage have been phytochemically investigated and studied for their medical potential. Viguiera is a genus that belongs to the family Asteraceae and to the sunflower tribe Heliantheae, which is widespread mostly in Mexico and in other areas of the Andes and upland areas of Brazil. A review on the secondary metabolites pointed out that sesquiterpene lactones and diterpenes, of the kaurane and pimarane-type, are the main compounds produced by these plants. Some reports have shown that kaurane- and pimarane-type diterpenes exert several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory action, antimicrobial and antispasmodic activities. Kaurenoic and pimaradienoic acids, which are the main secondary metabolites isolated by our research group from the roots of Viguiera robusta and V. arenaria, respectively, have been evaluated on vascular smooth muscle contractility. We showed that these diterpenoids are able to inhibit the vascular contractility mainly by blocking extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Additionally, in this review we discuss the structure-activity relationship of the diterpenes regarding their inhibitory activity on vascular contractility.
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            An Anti-Inflammatoryent-Kaurane from the Stems ofAnnona squamosathat Inhibits Various Human Neutrophil Functions

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              Antagonism of Cortex Periplocae extract-induced catecholamines secretion by Panax notoginseng saponins in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells by drug combinations


                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 August 2017
                : 15
                : 8
                : 625-630
                1Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: CHENG Zhi-Hong, Tel: 86-21-51980157, Fax: 86-21-51980017, E-mail: chengzhh@ 123456fudan.edu.cn ; CHEN Dao-Feng, Tel: 86-21-51980135, Fax: 86-21-51980017, E-mail: dfchen@ 123456shmu.edu.cn

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funded by: Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission
                Award ID: 2010-385
                This work was supported by a grant from Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (No. 2010-385).


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