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      Amiodarone Induced Thyrotoxicosis and Treatment Complications in a Man With Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: A Case Report

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          Abstract

          Background and Case: Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is a potentially life-threatening condition that exists in two main subtypes – AIT Type 1 (AIT1) and AIT Type 2 (AIT2). AIT1 is a form of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism with increased thyroid hormone synthesis, while AIT2 is a form of destructive thyroiditis with increased release of pre-formed thyroid hormone. This case report describes a patient with cyanotic congenital heart disease, who developed AIT with severe biochemical thyrotoxicosis. Due to complications to corticosteroids and thionamides, second-line treatment with cholestyramine and lithium was given which eventually restored euthyroidism, averting the need for thyroidectomy and its associated risks. Due to the presence of both typical and unusual features, the final diagnosis of AIT2 could only be retrospectively elucidated after a prolonged clinical course.

          Conclusion: Corticosteroids are well-recognized to be the first-line treatment for AIT2. This case illustrates a rare phenomenon: successful treatment of AIT2 with lithium and cholestyramine. In patients who develop complications from first-line therapy, prompt treatment with alternative agents may successfully avert thyroidectomy and its associated risks.

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          Most cited references28

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          2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis.

          Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. This document describes evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that would be useful to generalist and subspecialty physicians and others providing care for patients with this condition.
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            Thyroiditis.

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              Lithium side effects and toxicity: prevalence and management strategies

              Despite its virtually universal acceptance as the gold standard in treating bipolar disorder, prescription rates for lithium have been decreasing recently. Although this observation is multifactorial, one obvious potential contributor is the side effect and toxicity burden associated with lithium. Additionally, side effect concerns assuredly play some role in lithium nonadherence. This paper summarizes the knowledge base on side effects and toxicity and suggests optimal management of these problems. Thirst and excessive urination, nausea and diarrhea and tremor are rather common side effects that are typically no more than annoying even though they are rather prevalent. A simple set of management strategies that involve the timing of the lithium dose, minimizing lithium levels within the therapeutic range and, in some situations, the prescription of side effect antidotes will minimize the side effect burden for patients. In contrast, weight gain and cognitive impairment from lithium tend to be more distressing to patients, more difficult to manage and more likely to be associated with lithium nonadherence. Lithium has adverse effects on the kidneys, thyroid gland and parathyroid glands, necessitating monitoring of these organ functions through periodic blood tests. In most cases, lithium-associated renal effects are relatively mild. A small but measurable percentage of lithium-treated patients will show progressive renal impairment. Infrequently, lithium will need to be discontinued because of the progressive renal insufficiency. Lithium-induced hypothyroidism is relatively common but easily diagnosed and treated. Hyperparathyroidism from lithium is a relatively more recently recognized phenomenon.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front. Cardiovasc. Med.
                Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2297-055X
                30 October 2020
                2020
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of General Medicine, Sengkang General Hospital , Singapore, Singapore
                [2] 2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, National University Health System , Singapore, Singapore
                Author notes

                Edited by: Junjie Xiao, Shanghai University, China

                Reviewed by: Atsuhiko Yagishita, Tokai University Isehara Hospital, Japan; Nazareno Paolocci, Johns Hopkins University, United States; Zhengyuan Xia, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Gaetano Ruocco, Regina Montis Regalis Hospital, Italy; Valdo Jose Dias Da Silva, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil

                *Correspondence: Marvin Wei Jie Chua marvin.chua.w.j@ 123456singhealth.com.sg

                This article was submitted to General Cardiovascular Medicine, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

                Article
                10.3389/fcvm.2020.574391
                7673448
                9aeddc68-0075-4957-8bde-c75ac325da58
                Copyright © 2020 Chua and Mok.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 6, Words: 3702
                Categories
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                Case Report

                amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis,treatment,complications,cyanotic congenital heart disease,thyrotoxicosis

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