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      Coaliciones promotoras, perturbaciones externas y cambios en las políticas: Entender la intensidad de la política de control del tabaco en España, México y Uruguay Translated title: Advocacy Coalitions, External Perturbations and Policy Changes: Understanding the Intensity of Tobacco Control Policy in Spain, Mexico and Uruguay

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          Abstract

          Resumen: Se estudia por qué algunos países tienen políticas más estrictas para el control del tabaco que otros. Se analizaron tres casos que confirman dos hipótesis del marco de las coaliciones promotoras (ACF por sus siglas en inglés). En todos los casos, las políticas se intensificaron, en gran medida, debido a las perturbaciones externas de tipo normativo (PETN); además, sólo en Uruguay se intensificaron las políticas debido a las perturbaciones externas por cambios de gobierno (PECG). Para las PETN los factores que permitieron el cambio en las políticas fueron la durabilidad y la coordinación interna dentro de la coalición minoritaria; mientras que, para las PECG, fue la posición de la nueva coalición gobernante y su capacidad para cambiar la política por sí sola. Cabe notar que PETN fue más importante para España y la PECG fue más relevante para México y Uruguay. Esto debería investigarse a fondo para determinar si existe una relación entre los efectos de las perturbaciones externas y el contexto de cada país.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract: This article studies why some countries have more stringent policies for tobacco control than others. Three cases were studied that confirm two hypotheses of the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). First, in all cases the policies intensified, to great extent, due to external perturbations of a normative type (EPN). Second, only in Uruguay did the policies intensify due to external perturbations by changes in government (EPCG). For the EPN we find that the factors that enabled the change in policies were the durability and internal coordination within the minority coalition. And for the EPCG were the position of the new ruling coalition and its ability to change the policy on its own. Also, the EPN were more important for Spain while the EPGC were more relevant for Mexico and Uruguay. This should be further investigated to determine if there is a relation between external perturbations and the context of each country.

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          Most cited references 53

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          An advocacy coalition framework of policy change and the role of policy-oriented learning therein

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            Themes and Variations: Taking Stock of the Advocacy Coalition Framework

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              Changes in child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (CHETS) study after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland: national cross sectional survey.

              To detect any change in exposure to secondhand smoke among primary schoolchildren after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland in March 2006. Comparison of nationally representative, cross sectional, class based surveys carried out in the same schools before and after legislation. Scotland. 2559 primary schoolchildren (primary 7; mean age 11.4 years) surveyed in January 2006 (before smoke-free legislation) and 2424 in January 2007 (after legislation). Salivary cotinine concentrations, reports of parental smoking, and exposure to tobacco smoke in public and private places before and after legislation. The geometric mean salivary cotinine concentration in non-smoking children fell from 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.40) ng/ml to 0.22 (0.19 to 0.25) ng/ml after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Scotland-a 39% reduction. The extent of the fall in cotinine concentration varied according to the number of parent figures in the home who smoked but was statistically significant only among pupils living in households in which neither parent figure smoked (51% fall, from 0.14 (0.13 to 0.16) ng/ml to 0.07 (0.06 to 0.08) ng/ml) and among pupils living in households in which only the father figure smoked (44% fall, from 0.57 (0.47 to 0.70) ng/ml to 0.32 (0.25 to 0.42) ng/ml). Little change occurred in reported exposure to secondhand smoke in pupils' own homes or in cars, but a small decrease in exposure in other people's homes was reported. Pupils reported lower exposure in cafes and restaurants and in public transport after legislation. The Scottish smoke-free legislation has reduced exposure to secondhand smoke among young people in Scotland, particularly among groups with lower exposure in the home. We found no evidence of increased secondhand smoke exposure in young people associated with displacement of parental smoking into the home. The Scottish smoke-free legislation has thus had a positive short term impact on young people's health, but further efforts are needed to promote both smoke-free homes and smoking cessation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                gpp
                Gestión y política pública
                Gest. polít. pública
                Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas, División de Administración Pública (México, DF, Mexico )
                1405-1079
                December 2020
                : 29
                : 2
                : 477-501
                Affiliations
                [1] Ciudad de México Distrito Federal orgnameCentro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas Mexico miguel.guajardo@ 123456cide.edu
                [2] Albany NY orgnameUniversidad de Albany orgdiv1Centro para la Tecnología en el Gobierno USA jgil-garcia@ 123456ctg.albany.edu
                Article
                S1405-10792020000200477 S1405-1079(20)02900200477
                10.29265/gypp.v29i2.781
                9af325da-4376-4671-bcc2-e82c88b5e11c

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 25
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