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      Moracin C, A Phenolic Compound Isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Inflammatory Responses in Murine Raw264.7 Macrophages

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          Abstract

          Artocarpus heterophyllus, a popular tropical fruit commonly known as the jackfruit tree, is normally planted in subtropical or tropical areas. Since a variety of phytochemicals isolated from A. heterophyllus have been found to possess potently anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antimalarial activities, researchers have devoted much interest to its potential pharmaceutical value. However, the exact mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity is not well characterized. In this study, seven natural products isolated from A. heterophyllus, including 25-Hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one ( HY), Artocarpin ( AR), Dadahol A ( DA), Morachalcone A ( MA), Artoheterophyllin B ( AB), Cycloheterophyllin ( CY) and Moracin C ( MC) were collected. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages were used in this study. Among these compounds, MC significantly inhibited LPS-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) release without marked cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MC effectively reduced LPS stimulated up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and serval pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)). Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of MC was associated with the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (including p38, ERK and JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, especially reducing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit as revealed by nuclear separation experiment and confocal microscopy.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Points of control in inflammation.

           Carl Nathan (2015)
          Inflammation is a complex set of interactions among soluble factors and cells that can arise in any tissue in response to traumatic, infectious, post-ischaemic, toxic or autoimmune injury. The process normally leads to recovery from infection and to healing, However, if targeted destruction and assisted repair are not properly phased, inflammation can lead to persistent tissue damage by leukocytes, lymphocytes or collagen. Inflammation may be considered in terms of its checkpoints, where binary or higher-order signals drive each commitment to escalate, go signals trigger stop signals, and molecules responsible for mediating the inflammatory response also suppress it, depending on timing and context. The non-inflammatory state does not arise passively from an absence of inflammatory stimuli; rather, maintenance of health requires the positive actions of specific gene products to suppress reactions to potentially inflammatory stimuli that do not warrant a full response.
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            Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation.

            Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that has crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of NF-kappaB mainly occurs via IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitory molecules, including IkappaBalpha. Optimal induction of NF-kappaB target genes also requires phosphorylation of NF-kappaB proteins, such as p65, within their transactivation domain by a variety of kinases in response to distinct stimuli. Whether, and how, phosphorylation modulates the function of other NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 3, remains unclear. The identification and characterization of all the kinases known to phosphorylate NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins are described here. Because deregulation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB phosphorylations is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer, newly designed drugs targeting these constitutively activated signalling pathways represent promising therapeutic tools.
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              MAPK signalling pathways as molecular targets for anti-inflammatory therapy--from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic benefits.

              Excessive inflammation is becoming accepted as a critical factor in many human diseases, including inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative conditions, infection, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by a marked inflammatory reaction that is initiated by expression of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and other inflammatory mediators, including prostanoids and nitric oxide. This review discusses recent advances regarding the detrimental effects of inflammation, the regulation of inflammatory signalling pathways in various diseases, and the potential molecular targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that mediate fundamental biological processes and cellular responses to external stress signals. Increased activity of MAPK, in particular p38 MAPK, and their involvement in the regulation of the synthesis of inflammation mediators at the level of transcription and translation, make them potential targets for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Inhibitors targeting p38 MAPK and JNK pathways have been developed, and preclinical data suggest that they exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. This review discusses how these novel drugs modulate the activity of the p38 MAPK and JNK signalling cascades, and exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical disease models, primarily through the inhibition of the expression of inflammatory mediators. Use of MAPK inhibitors emerges as an attractive strategy because they are capable of reducing both the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their signalling. Moreover, many of these drugs are small molecules that can be administered orally, and initial results of clinical trials have shown clinical benefits in patients with chronic inflammatory disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                25 July 2016
                August 2016
                : 17
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Mei Long Road, Shanghai 200237, China; shirleyyao715@ 123456gmail.com (X.Y.); wudang19891013@ 123456163.com (D.W.); zoednn@ 123456126.com (N.D.); ouyangping2012@ 123456yeah.net (P.O.); pujiaqian2014@ 123456163.com (J.P.); huqian_ECUST@ 123456163.com (Q.H.); joan_wangjy@ 123456outlook.com (J.W.)
                [2 ]Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: wqlu@ 123456bio.ecnu.edu.cn (W.L.); huangjin@ 123456ecust.edu.cn (J.H.); Tel.: +86-21-2420-7041 (W.L.); +86-21-6425-3681 (J.H.)
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

                Article
                ijms-17-01199
                10.3390/ijms17081199
                5000597
                27463712
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                phenols, nf-κb, moracin c, mapks, inflammation

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