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      Role of TGF-β1/Smads pathway in carotid artery remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats and prevention by Enalapril and Amlodipine

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To investigate the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad2/3 and Smad7 expressions in carotid artery remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats, and also the therapeutic effect of Enalapril and Amlodipine.

          Methods

          The renovascular hypertensive rat (RHR) models with “two-kidney and one-clip” were established, including model group ( n = 6), sham-operated group ( n = 6), Enalapril group (10 mg/kg per day, n = 6), Amlodipine group (5 mg/kg per day, n = 6) and combination group (Amlodipine 2.5 mg/kg per day + Enalapril 5mg/kg per day, n = 6). The medication were continuous administrated for six weeks. Carotid artery morphological and structural changes in the media were observed by HE staining, Masson staining and immuno histochemical staining. Media thickness (MT), MT and lumen diameter ratio (MT/LD), and the expression levels of media α-smooth muscle actin (α-actin), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TGF-β1, phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and Smad7 in carotid arteries were measured.

          Results

          The media of carotid arteries in RHR model group was significantly thickened, the volume of smooth muscle cell was increased, and the array was in disorder; MT, MT/LD, the proliferation index of smooth muscle cell and collagen fiber area percentage of carotid arteries in the model group were significantly higher than those in the sham-operated group ( P < 0.01). Compared to sham-operated group, the model group had significantly higher expressions of TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3 ( P < 0.05) and lower Smad7 expression. Both Enalapril and Amlodipine improved smooth muscle hypertrophy and collagen deposition, reduced RHR carotid MT, MT/LD, proliferation index of smooth muscle cell, collagen fiber area percentage and the expressions of TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3 ( P < 0.05), increased Smad7 expression ( P < 0.05). Moreover, the combination treatment of Enalapril and Amlodipine had significantly better effects than single Amlodipine group ( P < 0.05), but not single Enalapril group.

          Conclusions

          TGF-β1/Smads pathway may participate in the mechanism of carotid artery remodeling in RHR; the role of Amlodipine and Enalapril in inversing carotid artery remodeling may be related to the change of TGF-β1/Smads pathway, the combination treatment of Amlodipine and Enalapril had better effects than single administration of Amlodipine.

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          Most cited references 18

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          TGF-beta1 mediates the hypertrophic cardiomyocyte growth induced by angiotensin II.

          Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent hypertrophic stimulus, causes significant increases in TGFb1 gene expression. However, it is not known whether there is a causal relationship between increased levels of TGF-beta1 and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic analysis revealed that TGF-beta1-deficient mice subjected to chronic subpressor doses of Ang II had no significant change in left ventricular (LV) mass and percent fractional shortening during Ang II treatment. In contrast, Ang II-treated wild-type mice showed a >20% increase in LV mass and impaired cardiac function. Cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was also markedly increased in Ang II-treated wild-type mice but unchanged in Ang II-treated TGF-beta1-deficient mice. No significant levels of fibrosis, mitotic growth, or cytokine infiltration were detected in Ang II-treated mice. Atrial natriuretic factor expression was approximately 6-fold elevated in Ang II-treated wild-type, but not TGF-beta1-deficient mice. However, the alpha- to beta-myosin heavy chain switch did not occur in Ang II-treated mice, indicating that isoform switching is not obligatorily coupled with hypertrophy or TGF-beta1. The Ang II effect on hypertrophy was shown not to result from stimulation of the endogenous renin-angiotensis system. These results indicate that TGF-beta1 is an important mediator of the hypertrophic growth response of the heart to Ang II.
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            Essential role of Smad3 in angiotensin II-induced vascular fibrosis.

            Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a pivotal role in vascular fibrosis, which leads to serious complications in hypertension and diabetes. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms are largely unclear. In hypertensive patients, we found that arteriosclerosis was associated with the activation of Smad2/3. This observation was further investigated in vitro by stimulating mouse primary aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with Ang II. There were several novel findings. First, Ang II was able to activate an early Smad signaling pathway directly at 15 to 30 minutes. This was extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) dependent but transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) independent because Ang II-induced Smad signaling was blocked by addition of ERK1/2 inhibitor and by dominant-negative (DN) ERK1/2 but not by DN-TGF-beta receptor II (TbetaRII) or conditional deletion of TbetaRII. Second, Ang II was also able to activate the late Smad2/3 signaling pathway at 24 hours, which was TGF-beta dependent because it was blocked by the anti-TGF-beta antibody and DN-TbetaRII. Finally, activation of Smad3 but not Smad2 was a key and necessary mechanism of Ang II-induced vascular fibrosis because Ang II induced Smad3/4 promoter activities and collagen matrix expression was abolished in VSMCs null for Smad3 but not Smad2. Thus, we concluded that Ang II induces vascular fibrosis via both TGF-beta-dependent and ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent Smad signaling pathways. Activation of Smad3 but not Smad2 is a key mechanism by which Ang II mediates arteriosclerosis.
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              Transforming growth factor beta in hypertensives with cardiorenal damage.

               J Díez,  N. Varo,  C Laviades (2000)
              We investigated whether a relationship exists between circulating transforming growth factor beta -1 (TGF-beta(1)), collagen type I metabolism, microalbuminuria, and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension and whether the ability of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan to correct microalbuminuria and regress left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensives is related to changes in TGF-beta(1) and collagen type I metabolism. The study was performed in 30 normotensive healthy controls and 30 patients with never-treated essential hypertension classified into 2 groups: those with microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion >30 and 116 g/m(2) for men and >104 g/m(2) for women) (group B; n=17) and those without microalbuminuria or left ventricular hypertrophy (group A; n=13). The measurements were repeated in all patients after 6 months of treatment with losartan (50 mg once daily). The serum concentration of TGF-beta(1) was measured by a 2-site ELISA method, and the serum concentrations of carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (a marker of collagen type I synthesis) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (a marker of collagen type I degradation) were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. The duration of hypertension and baseline values of blood pressure were similar in the 2 groups of patients. No differences in serum TGF-beta(1), carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I, and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I were found between normotensives and group A of hypertensives. Serum TGF-beta(1), carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I, and the ratio of carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I to carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I were increased (P<0.05) in group B of hypertensives compared with group A of hypertensives and normotensives. No differences in carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I were found among the 3 groups of subjects. After treatment with losartan, microalbuminuria and left ventricular hypertrophy persisted in 6 patients (then considered nonresponders) and disappeared in 11 patients (then considered responders) from group B. Compared with nonresponders, responders exhibited similar control of blood pressure and higher (P<0.05) blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors (as assessed by a higher increase in plasma levels of angiotensin II). Whereas TGF-beta(1), carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I, and the ratio of carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I to carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I decreased (P<0.05) in responders, no changes in these parameters were observed in nonresponders. These findings show that an association exists between an excess of TGF-beta(1), stimulation of collagen type I synthesis, inhibition of collagen type I degradation, and cardiorenal damage in a group of patients with essential hypertension. In addition, our results suggest that the ability of losartan to blunt the synthesis of TGF-beta(1) and normalize collagen type I metabolism may contribute to protect the heart and the kidney in a fraction of patients with essential hypertension.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Geriatr Cardiol
                J Geriatr Cardiol
                JGC
                Journal of Geriatric Cardiology : JGC
                Science Press
                1671-5411
                June 2012
                : 9
                : 2
                : 185-191
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou Province, China
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou Province, China
                [3 ]Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou Province, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Qian-Hui Shang, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou Province, China. E-mail: qianhui-shang@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                jgc-09-02-185
                10.3724/SP.J.1263.2012.04011
                3418910
                22916067
                Institute of Geriatric Cardiology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, which allows readers to alter, transform, or build upon the article and then distribute the resulting work under the same or similar license to this one. The work must be attributed back to the original author and commercial use is not permitted without specific permission.

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