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      The Role of Oxidative Stress in Hyperuricemia and Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) Inhibitors

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          Abstract

          Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans. Hyperuricemia is a metabolic disease caused by the increased formation or reduced excretion of serum uric acid (SUA). Alterations in SUA homeostasis have been linked to a number of diseases, and hyperuricemia is the major etiologic factor of gout and has been correlated with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and renal disease. Oxidative stress is usually defined as an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in our body and is considered to be one of the main causes of cell damage and the development of disease. Studies have demonstrated that hyperuricemia is closely related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the human body, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, with the accompanying production of ROS. Therefore, XOR is considered a drug target for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of uric acid transport and the development of hyperuricemia, emphasizing the role of oxidative stress in the occurrence and development of hyperuricemia. We also summarize recent advances and new discoveries in XOR inhibitors.

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          Most cited references 161

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          Radical causes of cancer.

          Free radicals are ubiquitous in our body and are generated by normal physiological processes, including aerobic metabolism and inflammatory responses, to eliminate invading pathogenic microorganisms. Because free radicals can also inflict cellular damage, several defences have evolved both to protect our cells from radicals--such as antioxidant scavengers and enzymes--and to repair DNA damage. Understanding the association between chronic inflammation and cancer provides insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In particular, we highlight the interaction between nitric oxide and p53 as a crucial pathway in inflammatory-mediated carcinogenesis.
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            Gout.

            Gout is a common arthritis caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals within joints after chronic hyperuricaemia. It affects 1-2% of adults in developed countries, where it is the most common inflammatory arthritis in men. Epidemiological data are consistent with a rise in prevalence of gout. Diet and genetic polymorphisms of renal transporters of urate seem to be the main causal factors of primary gout. Gout and hyperuricaemia are associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine remain the most widely recommended drugs to treat acute attacks. Oral corticosteroids could be an alternative to these drugs. Interleukin 1beta is a pivotal mediator of acute gout and could become a therapeutic target. When serum uric acid concentrations are lowered below monosodium urate saturation point, the crystals dissolve and gout can be cured. Patient education, appropriate lifestyle advice, and treatment of comorbidities are an important part of management of patients with gout. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men.

              Various purine-rich foods and high protein intake have long been thought to be risk factors for gout. Similarly, the possibility that the consumption of dairy products has a role in protecting against gout has been raised by metabolic studies. We prospectively investigated the association of these dietary factors with new cases of gout. Over a 12-year period, we prospectively examined the relationship between purported dietary risk factors and new cases of gout among 47,150 men who had no history of gout at base line. We used a supplementary questionnaire to ascertain whether participants met the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for gout. Diet was assessed every four years by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. During the 12 years of the study, we documented 730 confirmed new cases of gout. The multivariate relative risk of gout among men in the highest quintile of meat intake, as compared with those in the lowest quintile, was 1.41 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.86; P for trend = 0.02), and the corresponding relative risk associated with seafood intake was 1.51 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.95; P for trend = 0.02). In contrast, the incidence of gout decreased with increasing intake of dairy products; the multivariate relative risk among men in the highest quintile, as compared with those in the lowest quintile, was 0.56 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.74; P for trend <0.001). The level of consumption of purine-rich vegetables and the total protein intake were not associated with an increased risk of gout. Higher levels of meat and seafood consumption are associated with an increased risk of gout, whereas a higher level of consumption of dairy products is associated with a decreased risk. Moderate intake of purine-rich vegetables or protein is not associated with an increased risk of gout. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2021
                26 March 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                1Basic Medical College, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China
                2College of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Carlo G. Tocchetti

                Article
                10.1155/2021/1470380
                8019370
                Copyright © 2021 Ning Liu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Postdoctoral Science Foundation of Anhui Province
                Award ID: 2017B162
                Funded by: China Postdoctoral Science Foundation
                Award ID: 2015M581974
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81402947
                Award ID: 81700763
                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

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